OFFICIAL: A NEGRO INVENTED THE GUITAR

Composers of the Renaissance period who wrote for four course guitar include Alonso Mudarra, Miguel de Fuenllana, Adrian Le Roy, Gregoire Brayssing, Guillaume de Morlaye, and Simon Golier.

Composers for the 6-string guitar include:

Francesco Corbetta (ca. 1615 – 1681)
Gaspar Sanz (1640–1710)
Robert de Visée (ca. 1655 – 1732/1733)
Filippo Gragnani (1767–1820)
Antoine de Lhoyer (1768–1852)
Ferdinando Carulli (1770–1841)
Francesco Molino (1774–1847)
Fernando Sor (1778–1839)
Luigi Moretti (c. 1780–1850)
Mauro Giuliani (1781–1829)
Niccolò Paganini (1782–1840)
Dionisio Aguado (1784 – 1849)
Luigi Legnani (1790–1877)
Matteo Carcassi (1792–1853)
Napoléon Coste (1805–1883)
Johann Kaspar Mertz (1806–1856)

They must have all had Tardisae, because the guitar was apparently not even invented until 1886.

THE MILWAUKEE DRUM
African-American News and Commentary For Metro Milwaukee

Black History: Things Invented By African-Americans

Posted by Shakara on February 3, 2012

List of Things Invented by Black People:

air conditioning unit: Frederick M. Jones; July 12, 1949
almanac: Benjamin Banneker; Approx 1791
auto cut-off switch: Granville T. Woods; January 1,1839
auto fishing devise: G. Cook; May 30, 1899
automatic gear shift: Richard Spikes; February 28, 1932
baby buggy: W.H. Richardson; June 18, 1899
bicycle frame: L.R. Johnson; Octber 10, 1899
biscuit cutter: A.P. Ashbourne; November 30, 1875
blood plasma bag: Charles Drew; Approx. 1945
cellular phone: Henry T. Sampson; July 6, 1971
chamber commode: T. Elkins; January 3, 1897
clothes dryer: G. T. Sampson; June 6, 1862
curtain rod: S. R. Scratton; November 30, 1889
curtain rod support: William S. Grant; August 4, 1896
door knob: O. Dorsey; December 10, 1878
door stop: O. Dorsey; December 10, 1878
dust pan: Lawrence P. Ray; August 3, 1897
egg beater: Willie Johnson; February 5, 1884
electric lampbulb: Lewis Latimer; March 21, 1882
elevator: Alexander Miles; October 11, 1867
eye protector: P. Johnson; November 2, 1880
fire escape ladder: J. W. Winters; May 7, 1878
fire extinguisher: T. Marshall; October 26, 1872
folding bed: L. C. Bailey; July 18, 1899
folding chair: Brody & Surgwar; June 11, 1889
fountain pen: W. B. Purvis; January 7, 1890
furniture caster: O. A. Fisher; 1878
gas mask: Garrett Morgan; October 13, 1914
golf tee: T. Grant; December 12, 1899
guitar: Robert F. Flemming, Jr. March 3, 1886
hair brush: Lydia O. Newman; November 15,18–
hand stamp: Walter B. Purvis; February 27, 1883
horse shoe: J. Ricks; March 30, 1885
ice cream scooper: A. L. Cralle; February 2, 1897
improv. sugar making: Norbet Rillieux; December 10, 1846
insect-destroyer gun: A. C. Richard; February 28, 1899
ironing board: Sarah Boone; December 30, 1887
key chain: F. J. Loudin; January 9, 1894
lantern: Michael C. Harvey; August 19, 1884
lawn mower: L. A. Burr; May 19, 1889
lawn sprinkler: J. W. Smith; May 4, 1897
lemon squeezer: J. Thomas White; December 8, 1893
lock: W. A. Martin; July 23, 18–
lubricating cup: Ellijah McCoy; November 15, 1895
lunch pail: James Robinson; 1887
mail box: Paul L. Downing; October 27, 1891
mop: Thomas W. Stewart; June 11, 1893
motor: Frederick M. Jones; June 27, 1939
peanut butter: George Washington Carver; 1896
pencil sharpener: J. L. Love; November 23, 1897
record player arm: Joseph Hunger Dickenson January 8, 1819
refrigerator: J. Standard; June 14, 1891
riding saddles: W. D. Davis; October 6, 1895
rolling pin: John W. Reed; 1864
shampoo headrest: C. O. Bailiff; October 11, 1898
spark plug: Edmond Berger; February 2, 1839
stethoscope: Imhotep; Ancient Egypt
stove: T. A. Carrington; July 25, 1876
straightening comb: Madam C. J. Walker; Approx 1905
street sweeper: Charles B. Brooks; March 17, 1890
phone transmitter: Granville T. Woods; December 2, 1884
thermostat control: Frederick M. Jones; February 23, 1960
traffic light: Garrett Morgan; November 20, 1923
tricycle: M. A. Cherry; May 6, 1886
typewriter: Burridge & Marshman; April 7, 1885

http:www.themilwaukeedrum.com/2012/02/03/black-history-things-invented-by-african-americans/



Was Fleming even a Negro?

Fleming's guitar patent abstract states, "The body of my improved instrument is made of substantially the same shape as an ordinary guitar." He goes on to say that his "invention" has parchment or vellum heads instead of wooden heads.

US Patent 338727A

R. F. FLEMMINGS. Jr.

VELLUM GUITAR.

UNITED STATES, PATENT OFFICE.
MELROSE, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR OF SPRAGUE, OF SAME PLACE.

GUITAR.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 338,727, dated March 30, 1886.

Application filed September 5, 1885.

To all whom it it may concern:

Be it known that I, ROBERT F. FLEMMINGS, Jr., of Melrose, in the county of Middlesex and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Musical Instruments, of which the following, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a specification.

My invention relates to musical instruments, and especially to that class of stringed instruments in which the strings are vibrated by the fingers; and it has for its object the production of an instrument which I term the Euphonica, and which contains all of the good qualities of a guitar, while the volume and sweetness of its tone is much superior thereto, and at the same time it is much more sensitive to the touch.

My invention consists in certain novel features of construction and arrangements and combinations of parts, which will readily be understood by reference to the description of the drawings, and to the claims to be hereinafter given.

[Illustrations]

The body of my improved instrument is made of substantially the same shape as an ordinary guitar, and has similar wooden sides, but instead of having wooden heads, as in a guitar, it is provided with parchment or clamping-nut, by Serial No. 176,236. (No model.)

Vellum heads, which are stretched over said sides in any well-known manner. The upper vellum head is provided, at or near the point where the strings are vibrated by the fingers, with a number of perforations, through which the sound may escape.

In order to prevent the destruction of the sides by a too severe straining of the vellum heads, said sides are strengthened by the interior bracing, which, together with the additional short braces, are placed far enough from the inner sides of the heads to prevent the possibility of their contact therewith.

The heads are stretched upon the body of the instrument by being out to a shape similar to but somewhat larger than the outline of said body, and then having the surplus material bent back upon itself over a wire, which is slipped over each of said heads after they have been placed upon the body of the instrument, after which a band of metal is placed over each of said heads, so that one edge thereof comes into contact with that portion of the vellum or parchment head which has been turned back upon itself over the wire, and then the said band is forced downward by the pull-downs, having bearings in the brackets, which are secured to the sides or shell to a of the body of the instrument by means of the screws, passing through said shell, and provided with suitable nuts upon the interior, as shown in Fig. 14.. At the points where the brackets are thus secured to the sides, said sides are reenforced and strengthened by the narrow ribs, made of wood, the grain of which is at right angles with the grain of the band of wood which forms the shell or sides of said body of the instrument.

The metal band is formed of a narrow ribbon of metal, in which a slot is formed at one end, while the other end is provided with a suitable threaded stud or bolt, which passes through said slot when said ends are caused to overlap, and is provided with a which the said ends may be clamped together in any desired position, so as to insure that said band will fit snugly the perimeter of said shell or sides.

[et cetera]

Beneath the perforations is placed a reverberant, which consists of a ring, over which is stretched a disk of very thin parchment or vellum, which is held in place by another but slightly-larger ring, in a well-known manner, these rings being connected through the U-shaped support to the movable end of the spring-arm, the opposite end of which is secured to the bracket, mounted upon the inner side of the body of the instrument. As the strings are touched by the musician, the heads are vibrated, and the air within the body of the instrument is set in motion, which in turn imparts its motion to the reverberant, which, as it vibrates in unison with the strings touched toward and from the upper head acts as a regulator to gage the amount of sound to be emitted from the perforations.

The metal strip, forming the upper portion of the bridge is, is provided with suitable notches in its upper edge to receive the strings, in order to keep said strings an equal distance apart.

What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is

1. A stringed musical instrument the body of which is provided with a parchment or vellum head perforated at or near the point where the strings are operated upon,with a cluster of circular openings to cause them to vibrate.

2. A stringed musical instrument the body of which is provided with two removable of the instrument and connected to a lever in heads, one of which is provided with a cluster of circular openings, and a seriesofstrings within said body corresponding in number and pitch with the strings upon the outside of said instrument.

3. A stringed musical instrument the body of which is provided with a perforated vellum or parchment head and a reverberant mounted upon a spring or yielding arm, and located beneath the perforated portion of said head to regulate the amount of sound to be emitted therefrom.

4. In a musical instrument, the combination of two removable vellum or parchmeifiheads, one or more headed rods or posts interposed between said heads and mounted in bearings, with their heads in contact with the front or upper head, and a spring interposed between the head of said rod and its bearing to maintain said rod in contact with said front or upper head.

5. A stringed musical instrument the body of which is provided with two vellum or parchment heads, a series of strings located within said body and corresponding in number and pitch with ihe strings outside of said body,and a series of pins interposed between said inside strings and one of the heads to transmit the vibrations of said head to said inside strings.

6. In a stringed musical instrument, a mute or damper consisting of a support covered with a non-resonant material pivoted to the bridge such a manner that said support may be osillated about its axis by said lever and brought into contact with the strings to deaden and soften their tone.

7. In a stringed musical instrument, a reverberant or sound-regulator consisting of a ring having clamped thereon a disk of thin parchment or vellum and mounted upon a spring-arm beneath the openings for the emission of the sound.

8. In a stringed musical instrument provided with a series of strings within the interior of the body thereof, a twanging device consisting of a rod mounted in suitable bearings in which it is adapted to be oscillated or reciprocated by means of a milled head located outside of said body,and having mounted thereon an arm provided with a cam portion by which any desired string may be snapped.

9. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of the strings and the tail-piece thereof with a series of independent and detachable hooked wires interposed between said strings and said tail-piece.

10. In a stringed musical instrument, a series of strings secured in a fixed position to one of the ends of the body thereof, passing through said end into the interior of the body, where they are stretched over suitable bridges, and passing out at the opposite end to suitable tuning-pegs mounted in a suitable arm projecting from the lower end of the instrument.

11. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of the sides provided with the slots, the vellum head, the band, the pull-downs, the bolts and the nuts all substantially as and for the purposes described.

12. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of the sides provided with the slots, the vellum head, the metal band , provided with the slots and and the stud or bolt; the bolts, the nuts, and a series of pulldowns, all substantially as and for the purposes described.

13. In a stringed musical instrument, the ombination of the sides, the vellum head, the metal band, provided with the slot at one end and the bolt at the other, and the nut, all substantially as and for the purposes described.

14. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of the vellum head, the crossbrace, the pins, the vertically-moving bridges, the springs, and the strings, all substantially as and for the purposes described.

15. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of the sides provided with the stiffening-pieces the neck, provided with the projection, the extension, secured to said projection, and the screws and all substantially as and for the purposes described.

16. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of the sides, the vellum head, and the series of longitudinal and cross-braces, all substantially as and for the purposes described.

17. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of a series of strings within the body thereof, the rod provided with the stop-rod and the picker-arm, and mounted in suitable bearings, so that it may be either oscillated or reciprocated therein, and the hook secured to a fixed support, all substantially as and for the purposes described.

18. In a stringed musical instrument, a bridge composed of a wooden base portion and a metal strip the upper edge of which is provided with suitable notches to receive the strings.

In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, on this 1st day of September, A. D. 1885.

Bonner F. FLEMMINGS, JR.

Witnesses:

WALTER E. LOMBARD, FRANK E. BRAY.



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I will patent my invention

I have invented the Motion Diagram, which is a series of still images which when shown in rapid succession creates the illusion of moving images due to phi phenomenon, an optical illusion that causes the viewer to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession.
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卍心の智

Author:卍心の智

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