O Neill Arms

Ulaid Scotti Lion

The Lion Rampant has been used as a heraldic symbol by royal descendants of Maíl Choluim mac Dhonnchaidh (regnet 1058–1093) beginning with the reign of Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim (regnet 1124-1153).

The Lion Rampant motif is also used as a badge by those Ulster clans who share a common lineage with Maíl Choluim mac Dhonnchaidh mac Crìonain mac Cináeda mac Duib mac Maíl Coluim mac Domnaill mac Causantín mac Cináeda mac Ailpín mac Echdach (i.e., Maíl Choluim mac Dhonnchaidh, son of Donnchadh mac Crìonain ("An t-Ilgarach"), grandson of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, son of Cináed mac Duib ("An Donn"), son of Dub mac Maíl Coluim ("Niger"), son of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, son of Domnall mac Causantín ("Dásachtach"), son of Causantín mac Cináeda, son of Cináed mac Ailpín ("An Ferbasach"), son of Alpín mac Echdach).

Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim's sister Edith/Matilda was Queen of England, wife of Henri I Beauclerc Plantagenet (which is why he adopted the Milesian lion as his shield upon marrying her), son of William the Conqueror; and mother of Matilda, Holy Roman Empress, and of William William Ætheling, Norman Heir Apparent of England. David and Edith/Matilda's mother was Saint Margaret of Scotland (a granddaughter of Anglo-Saxon King Edmund Ironside, and a great-niece of Edward the Confessor.)

They are linked to the Milesian genealogies of Ireland.

John O'Hart, Irish pedigrees: or, The origin and stem of the Irish nation (Genealogical Publishing Company, 1989), p. 55:

"Milesius of Spain bore three lions in his shield and standard, for the following reasons: namely, that, in his travels in his younger days into foreign countries, passing through Africa, he, by his cunning and valour, killed in one morning three lions; and that, in memory of so noble and valiant an exploit, he always after bore three lions on his shield, which his two surviving sons Heber and Heremon, and his grandson Heber Donn, son of Ir, after their conquest of Ireland, divided amongst them, as well as they did the country: each of them bearing a Lion in his shield and banner, but of different colours; which the Chiefs of their posterity continue to this day: some with additions and differences; others plain and entire as they had it from their ancestors."

George Pepper, "The Irish Shield and Monthly Milesian," Volume 937 of American periodical series, 1800-1850 (1829), p. 309:

"From the royal Irish source sprung the Malcolms, the Bruces, the Baliols, the Stuarts, the Campbells as well as the Douglases, and Macullamore, and the reigning family of England, as the Irish and Scottish genealogies will prove."

Geoffrey Keating, in Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, gives "Scota" as the name of the daughter of Pharaoh Nectanebo I, and mother of the sons of Milesius; "or perhaps from themselves, they being originally of the Scythian race." Other sources name Scota as the daughter of Pharaoh Neferhotep I and his wife Senebsen, and claim that this Scota was the wife of Míl/Milesius, and the mother of Éber Donn and Érimón. Míl had given Neferhotep military aid against ancient Ethiopia and was given Scota in marriage as a reward. Writing in 1571, Edmund Campion named the pharaoh Amenophis; Keating named him Cincris.

Scota appears in the Irish chronicle Book of Leinster (containing a redaction of the Lebor Gabála Érenn). However a recension found in an 11th-century manuscript of the Historia Brittonum contains an earlier reference to Scota.

The 12th-century sources state that Scota was the daughter of an Egyptian pharaoh, a contemporary of Moses, who married Geytholos (Goídel Glas) and became the eponymous founders of the Scots and Gaels after being exiled from Egypt.

The earliest Scottish sources claim Geytholos was "a certain king of the countries of Greece, Neolus, or Heolaus, by name", while the Lebor Gabála Érenn Leinster redaction in contrast describes him as a Scythian. Other manuscripts of the Lebor Gabála Érenn contain a variant legend of Scota's husband, not as Goídel Glas but instead Mil Espaine and connect him to ancient Iberia.

Another variant myth in the redactions of the Lebor Gabála Érenn state that there was another Scota who was the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh named Cingris, a name found only in Irish legend. She married Niul, son of Fenius Farsaid, a Babylonian who travelled to Scythia after the collapse of the Tower of Babel. Niul was a scholar of languages, and was invited by the pharaoh to Egypt and given Scota's hand in marriage. They had a son, Goídel Glas, the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels, who created the Gaelic language by combining the best features of the 72 languages then in existence.

Although these legends vary, they all agree that Scota was the eponymous founder of the Scots.

Scotias Grave Glenn Scoithin Tralee Kerry

The Book of Invasions tells how Ir, the fifth son of King Milesius and Queen Scotia, and his seven brothers invaded Ireland. While landing in a storm which dispersed the fleet, five of the sons of Milesius drowned. But Ir's son Heber Donn and his three surviving uncles managed to rout the natives in battle, naming the island Ireland after Ir. Heber Donn became ruler of Ultonia, now Ulster. The Ultonians ruled Ulster for seven centuries, and one of them, Rory Mor, became king of all Ireland. According to the Franciscan historian Michael O' Cleirigh (b. 1580), in the Annals of the Four Masters, the tribe of the McGinnises (Clanna Aodha or Hugh) was chief of Rory's clan (Clanna Rory). But in anno domini 332, the forces of the southern O'Neills attacked King Saraan, ruler of Ulster. After a seven-day battle, his palace of Emania was burned and his Clanna Rory was driven back to the far northeastern counties of Down and Antrim, where Saraan established the kingdom of Dal Araidhe or Uladh.

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Scotia was a Roman name for Ireland, inhabited by the people they called Scoti or Scotii. Use of the name shifted in the Middle Ages to designate the part of the island of Great Britain lying north of the Firth of Forth, the Kingdom of Alba. By the later Middle Ages it had become the fixed Latin term for what in English is called Scotland. (Manx:: Nalbin. Welsh: Yr Alban.)

Scoti/Scotti is found in Latin texts from the 4th century describing a tribe which sailed from Ireland to raid Roman Britain. It came to be applied to all the Gaels. It is not believed that any Gaelic groups called themselves Scoti in ancient times, except when writing in Latin. Old Irish documents use the term Scot (plural Scuit) going back as far as the 9th century, for example in the glossary of Cormac úa Cuilennáin. Oman derives it from Scuit; a man cut off, suggesting that a Scuit was not a Gael as such but one of a renegade band settled in the part of Ulster which became the kingdom of Dál Riata.

Scotia was a way of saying "Land of the Gaels". Isidore of Seville, in 580 CE, writes, "Scotia and Hibernia are the same country" (Isidore, lib. xii. c. 6). By the 12th century, Scotia, as a translation of Alba, could mean both the whole Kingdom belonging to the rex Scottorum, or just Scotland north of the Forth. King Robert I of Scotland and Domhnall Ua Néill, during the Scottish Wars of Independence, refer to Ireland as Scotia Maior, and Scotland as Scotia Minor.

A Medici Pope, Leo X (1513–1521), decreed that the use of the name Scotia be confined to referring to land that is now Scotland, granted Scotland (i.e., Alba, Caledonia) exclusive right over the word, and granted Anglo-Scots control over Irish/Ionian/Scotian monasteries (Schottenklöster) in continental Europe.

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The McGinnis and O'Neill clans were the main powers in Ulster. The McGinnis clan defeated English forces in 1380 and 1418, but the English defeated them in 1396, 1400, 1420, 1424 and 1453. In the 16th century the McGinnis chiefs were often in conflict with Catholic authorities, and many became Protestants. Two 16th century Irish bishops who served under the Church of England were named McGinnis - one of the diocese of Down. However, by the 17th century the McGinnis chiefs of the time had revived their loyalty to Ireland's ancient power system. A McGinnis was once again Bishop of Down, but this time he was Catholic and Franciscan. In the Cromwellian Revolution of 1641-1653, the family heads enthusiastically served the Royalist cause against the Puritans and thus lost much of their land, which was then planted with English (not the usual Scottish) settlers. Lord Iveagh Brian Magennis led a Jacobite regiment, and served in James' 1689 parliament in Dublin. But after the conclusive English victory at the Battle of Boyne in 1690, the McGinnis clan finally lost their wide hereditary lands in County Down. Many of them joined foreign militaries as Wild Geese, serving in the Catholic armies of Austria, France and Spain.

McGinnis comes from the Irish "mac" (son of) and "Aonghusa/Aonguis" (great strength) or variously "son of Adam" or "son of Angus." The arms of the McGinnis clan are a golden lion on a green shield surmounted by a red right hand (Vert, a lion rampant or, on a chief argent a dexter hand erect, couped at the wrist gules. Crest: a boar passant proper langued gules armed and hoofed or. Supporters: two bucks gules langued azure, crined ungules and gorged with collars gemel or. Dicto: Sola Salus Servire Deo (Well-being is only found in serving God")).

King Milesius had three lions as his crest. After dividing Ireland between themselves, the families of his sons Heber, Heremon and Hyrus each took one lion on their own shield and banner, but each took a different color.

The Red Hand is claimed by the O'Neills, McGinnises, and O'Bryans.

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At the Battle of Varvarin and many other engagements, an O’Rourke led the Russian and Serb battalions to victory, and in 1910 a monument was erected on the plain where the Turks were routed in 1810.

The family of O’Rourke had left Ireland after the Battle of the Boyne and settled in France. In the reign of the Russian Empress Elisabeth, a branch emigrated to the Baltic provinces.

Joseph Cornelius O'Rourke, liberator of the Serbs, was born in Dorpat in 1772. As an infant he was inscribed in the ranks of the Imperial Guard. As a young Lieutenant he was appointed to the French Emigrant Corps and fought with them at Zurich against the Republican Government. He returned to Russia as colonel and took a command under General Kutussoff. In 1805 he was decorated for signal bravery with the order of Saint George. In the Battle of Eylau, O'Rourke again distinguished himself and at the proclamation of peace was entrusted with the formation of the Uhlan regiment, "Volinsky", which he led against the Turks at Varvarin. He had equipped it at his own expense and marched with it to the Balkan Peninsula as part of the Moldavian contingent told to assist the Christians against The Turk. O’Rourke assisted in the deliverance of Prahavo, and took part in the fighting at Bela Palanka. He next drove The Turk from Soko Gania, and defeated them in the Battle of Jassika. An Imperial Rescript was forwarded to him on this occasion, in appreciation of his valour.

At Varvarin, Count Joseph won the Decoration of Saint Anne. In the face of great odds he decided to hold his ground, and threw up trenches to shelter his men and cannon. Under his inspiriting command, Serbs and Russians, repulsed during four days repeated furious onslaughts of the Turks, treble their number. In a final desperate encounter O’Rourke not only beat the attacking forces, but chased them over the Morava River into the wilds of Albania. He now took the offensive and started to storm Gurgusovats (the present thriving town of Knajevats) which he conquered and kept. By obliging the Muslims to evacuate this stronghold he secured the freedom of eighty Serb villages hitherto under tribute. At the close of the war a gold sabre with jewel encrusted hilt was presented to O’Rourke by the Christian populations he had delivered. The career of a soldier- and more especially of a Russian soldier sinecure in those days. O’Rourke withdrew from one battle-field only to enter another. He was an active combatant in the repulse of the French invasion, assisted at the siege of Magdeburg, and in the Cavalry charge of the First Leipzig. Here it was that he won the rank of Lieutenant General. With the Northern Army, he fought at Gross Beern, Dunewits, Wittemberg and the second Leipzig. At Witzengerode he performed feats of valour that were awarded with the Order of St.Alexander Nevsky. General Count Joseph O’Rourke died in 1849 at his country estate of Wsielub in the province of Minsk, leaving six sons to perpetuate his name. Count Nicholas, his grandson, chose the Navy as his profession. On the frigate Aurore he sailed round the world and served with the squadron that so gloriously defeated the Anglo French fleet in the Crimean War. He married a princess of the royal native line of Romania. Two of his sons are in the army so that the taste for soldiering is not extinct in the chivalrous line of the Russian O’Rourke.

The Memorial on the Title of Count in the O’Rourke Family, 25th July 1847

Affirmation by the Senate

List of papers, out of which is compiled

1. The Reference attitude of the Inspectorate Department of the Defense Ministry of 30 June 1846, No 6144

2. Report of the General of Cavalry Count Osip O’Rourke to the Defense Ministry of 27 May 1846

3. The original Genealogy of the Counts O’Rourke in the English language and translation.

4. Translation of a copy of the decree for admission to Russian service of the Irsih Counts John and Cornelius O’Rourke, the first as Major and the second as Captain.

5. Relating to the retirement of first Major Count John O’Rourke.

6. Translation of a copy given in the national war collegium by First Major Count Ivan O’Rourke. Copies of formal rolls of service.

7. Major-General Count Cornelius O’Rourke.

8. Lieutenant-General Count Joseph Cornelecich O’Rourke.

9. Major-General Vladimir Yegorovich O’Rourke.

10. Lieutenant Colonel Moritz Yegorovich O’Rourke.

11. Staff-company("Mistr")Alexander Josephich O’Rourke

Lieutenant Count Michael O’Rourke

By decree of his sovereign majesty the emperor, Nikolai Pavlovich, Autocrat of all Russia etc etc etc.

The bearer of this, serving in the 15th naval complement,Lieutenant Michael, son of Joseph, Count O’Rourke;aged 25;a nobleman;of the Catholic faith;unmarried;his father in Minsk region of Nowogrodek has 1000 serfs; he was educated in the marine cadet corps in which he became a cadet on 16 August 1838; was commissioned junior officer on 10 January 1840; as feldwebel 9 January 1842; as midshipman the same year on 10 January; as Warrant Officer on 9 August 1844; as Lieutenant on 6 December 1849.

In the campaigns he was in the Baltic and Black seas, serving in accordance to the highest ordinance of 1836. After he graduated from the corps as Michman (Mid-shipman) his name was put into a special "Book of the firsts" in 1845.

On 13 September 1845, in accordance with the highest ordinance, he received a half-yearly salary as wages for the distinguished zeal and dedicated service. He was never penalised or before a court. His service record was good. He was on leave from the 23 August 1844 for 3 months and from 17 October 1848 for 4 months and he reported back for duty on time. On 14 December 1849, by the highest order given to the fleet, he was discharged from service for domestic reasons according to his position.

In testimony of which is given this decree to Lieutenant Count O’Rourke from the Inspectorate Department of the Admiralty under the signature and stamp affixed. In the decree 7 erasures, amendments and corrections between paragraphs are not included.

St Petersburg, 21 February 1850 Duty General Count Gayden Vice-Director Lutovski Chief of Department (signed)

Lt General Count Ioseph (Joseph) Kornilovich O’Rourke, 1770 – 1849

"...Count I K O’Rourke 1770-1849. During the reign of Elisabeth his father arrived in Russia and became a general-major. His mother was born in Stuart family.

1790 - IKO’R (as Rotmistz) took part in a Finnish (Army) Company

1794 - In a Polish (Army) Company – he was in Pskov Dragoon Regiment

1797 - He was transferred in famous Pavlograd Houssar Regiment

1798 - A Major of same. Became a Colonel during Italian (Army) Company of Souvorov

1805 - Decorated with St George Order (the 1st level). Was very brave by Austerlitz and Preisisik-Eilay

1809-1812 - Member or Russia-Turkish war – decorated with 3 Orders. That is why he took part in the war with Napoleon only after Napoleon’s occupation of Moscow at the end of Russian period of this war in Germany. For his part in the battle near Leipzig he was made general –lieutenant. Decorated with Order of Alexandz Nevsky. During the Congress in Vienna was among the Russian generals 1819 decided to leave the Army – lived in Belorussia (not far from Minsk)..."


Uliad Scotti Lion tattoo

Milesian Map

3 Lions

Artemis w Swastikas




Floor Swastikas Spain

Gold Disk Swastikas Greece

O Brian Lions Colour

O Neill Tyrone

Roney Rooney

Arms of Valerio Magawly Cerati

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