大日本帝国陸軍 小野田寛郎少尉 死去

Onoda Hiroo

Onoda Hiroo and Onoda Shigeo

Onoda Hiroo

Onoda Hiroo

Onoda Hiroo

Onoda Hiroo

Onoda Hiroo

Onoda Hiroo 小野田 寛郎 1922.03.19–2014.01.16















小野田寛郎さん死去、終戦知らずルバング島30年間任務続行

イザ・2014.1.17

フィリピン・ルバング島に終戦後も任務を続け、30年密林にこもって戦闘を続けた元陸軍少尉、小野田寛郎さんが亡くなっていたことがわかった。

戦争が続いていると信じフィリピン・ルバング島に30年間任務を続けた元陸軍少尉で、ボランティアなどを養成する「小野田自然塾」理事長の小野田寛郎(おのだ・ひろお)さんが16日午後4時29分、肺炎のため都内の病院で死去したことが17日、分かった。91歳だった。葬儀・告別式は親族のみで行う。後日、お別れの会を開く予定。

遺族らによると、体調を崩して6日から入院していたという。

大正11年、和歌山県亀川村(現海南市)で生まれ、昭和19年に諜報員などを養成する陸軍中野学校を卒業後、情報将校としてフィリピンへ派遣。20年の終戦後も任務解除の命令が届かず、ルバング島の密林にこもって戦闘を続け、49年3月に任務解除命令を受けて帰国した。

50年にはブラジルへ移住し、牧場を開業。平成元年には小野田自然塾を開設し、ルバング島での経験を基にキャンプ生活を通した野外活動などでボランティアの育成などに尽力した。近年は都内で生活し、国内各地で講演を行っていた。




Onoda Hiroo

Wikipedia

Onoda was born on March 19, 1922, in Kamekawa Village, Kaisō District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. When he was 17 years old, he went to work for the Tajima Yoko trading company in Wuhan, China. When he was 20, he was enlisted in the Imperial Japanese Army.

Onoda trained as an intelligence officer in the commando class "Futamata" (二俣分校 futamata-bunkō?) of Nakano School. On December 26, 1944, he was sent to Lubang Island in the Philippines. He was ordered to do all he could to hamper enemy attacks on the island, including destroying the airstrip and the pier at the harbor. Onoda's orders also stated that under no circumstances was he to surrender or take his own life. When he landed on the island, Onoda joined forces with a group of Japanese soldiers who had been sent there previously. The officers in the group outranked Onoda and prevented him from carrying out his assignment, which made it easier for United States and Philippine Commonwealth forces to take the island when they landed on February 28, 1945. Within a short time of the landing, all but Onoda and three other soldiers had either died or surrendered and Onoda, who had been promoted to lieutenant, ordered the men to take to the hills.

Onoda continued his campaign as a Japanese holdout, initially living in the mountains with three fellow soldiers (Private Yūichi Akatsu, Corporal Shōichi Shimada and Private First Class Kinshichi Kozuka). The first time they saw a leaflet announcing that Japan had surrendered was in October 1945; another cell had killed a cow and found a leaflet left behind by islanders which read: "The war ended on August 15. Come down from the mountains!" However, they mistrusted the leaflet, because another cell had been fired upon a few days previously. They concluded that the leaflet was Allied propaganda, and also believed that they would not have been fired on if the war had indeed been over. Toward the end of 1945, leaflets were dropped by air with a surrender order printed on them from General Tomoyuki Yamashita of the Fourteenth Area Army. They had been in hiding for over a year, and this leaflet was the only evidence they had the war was over. Onoda's group looked very closely at the leaflet to determine whether it was genuine, and decided it was not. One of the four, Yuichi Akatsu walked away from the others in September 1949 and surrendered to Filipino forces in 1950 after six months on his own. This seemed like a security problem to the others and they became even more careful. In 1952 letters and family pictures were dropped from aircraft urging them to surrender, but the three soldiers concluded that this was a trick. Shimada was shot in the leg during a shoot-out with local fishermen in June 1953, after which Onoda nursed him back to health. On May 7, 1954, Shimada was killed by a shot fired by a search party looking for the men. Kozuka was killed by two shots fired by local police on October 19, 1972, when he and Onoda, as part of their guerrilla activities, were burning rice that had been collected by farmers. Onoda was now alone. Though Onoda had been officially declared dead in December 1959, this event suggested that it was likely he was still alive and search parties were sent out, but did not find him.

On February 20, 1974, Onoda met a Japanese man, Norio Suzuki, who was traveling around the world, looking for "Lieutenant Onoda, a panda, and the Abominable Snowman, in that order". Suzuki found Onoda after four days of searching. Onoda described this moment in a 2010 interview: "This hippie boy Suzuki came to the island to listen to the feelings of a Japanese soldier. Suzuki asked me why I would not come out ..." Onoda and Suzuki became friends, but Onoda still refused to surrender, saying that he was waiting for orders from a superior officer. Suzuki returned to Japan with photographs of himself and Onoda as proof of their encounter, and the Japanese government located Onoda's commanding officer, Major Yoshimi Taniguchi, who had since become a bookseller. He flew to Lubang where on March 9, 1974, he finally met with Onoda and fulfilled the promise made in 1944, "Whatever happens, we'll come back for you," by issuing him the following orders:

"In accordance with the Imperial command, the Fourteenth Area Army has ceased all combat activity.

"In accordance with military Headquarters Command No. A-2003, the Special Squadron of Staff's Headquarters is relieved of all military duties.

"Units and individuals under the command of Special Squadron are to cease military activities and operations immediately and place themselves under the command of the nearest superior officer. When no officer can be found, they are to communicate with the American or Philippine forces and follow their directives."

(Hiroo Onoda, Onoda 1999, pp. 13–14)

Onoda was thus properly relieved of duty, and he surrendered. He turned over his sword, his functioning Arisaka Type 99 rifle, 500 rounds of ammunition and several hand grenades, as well as the dagger his mother had given him in 1944 for protection. Only private Teruo Nakamura, arrested on 18 December 1974 in Indonesia, held out for longer.

Though he had killed people and engaged in shootouts with the police, the circumstances were taken into consideration, and Onoda received a pardon from President Ferdinand Marcos.

Onoda was so popular following his return to Japan that some Japanese urged him to run for the Diet (Japan's bicameral legislature). He also released a ghostwritten autobiography, No Surrender: My Thirty-Year War, shortly after his return, detailing his life as a guerrilla fighter in a war that was long over. A Philippine documentary interviewed people who lived on Lubang Island during Onoda's stay, revealing that Onoda had killed several people, which he had not mentioned in his autobiography. The news media reported on this and other misgivings, but at the same time welcomed his return home. The Japanese government offered him a large sum of money in back pay, which he refused. When money was pressed on him by well-wishers, he donated it to Yasukuni Shrine.

Onoda was reportedly unhappy being the subject of so much attention and troubled by what he saw as the withering of traditional Japanese values. In April 1975, he followed the example of his elder brother Tadao and left Japan for Brazil, where he raised cattle. He married in 1976 and assumed a leading role in Colônia Jamic (Jamic Colony), the Japanese community in Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. After reading about a Japanese teenager who had murdered his parents in 1980, Onoda returned to Japan in 1984 and established the Onoda Shizen Juku ("Onoda Nature School") educational camp for young people, held at various locations in Japan.

Onoda revisited Lubang Island in 1996, donating US$10,000 for the local school on Lubang. His wife, Machie Onoda, became the head of the conservative Japan Women's Association in 2006. He used to spend three months of the year in Brazil. Onoda was awarded the Merit medal of Santos-Dumont by the Brazilian Air Force on December 6, 2004. On February 21, 2010, the Legislative Assembly of Mato Grosso do Sul awarded him the title of "Cidadão do (Citizen of) Mato Grosso do Sul."

Onoda died of heart failure on 16 January, 2014, at St. Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo, due to complications from pneumonia. Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga commented on his death: "I vividly remember that I was reassured of the end of the war when Mr Onoda returned to Japan" and also praised his will to survive.



Hiroo Onoda

By [Kike] JUDIT KAWAGUCHI, Japan Times, Jan 16, 2007

Hiroo Onoda, 84, is a former member of an Imperial Japanese Army intelligence unit, an elite commando during World War II who was sent to Lubang Island in the Philippines in 1944 to conduct guerrilla warfare and gather military intelligence. Trained in clandestine operations, his mission was to sneak behind enemy lines, conduct surveillance and survive independently until issued new orders. He did exactly that for the next 30 years. Long after Japan’s surrender in 1945, he continued to serve his country in the jungle, convinced that the Greater East Asia War was still being fought. He lived on mostly bananas and mangoes, evading many Japanese search parties and the local Philippine police, all of whom he believed were enemy spies. In March 1974, at age 52, a Japanese man who had run across Onoda brought his former superior to the island with instructions that relieved him of his military duties. After a brief return to Japan, he moved to Brazil where he became a successful rancher. He came back to Japan in the 1980s and established the Onoda Nature School with the goal of educating children about the value of life. His incredible adventures on Lubang are detailed in his book “No Surrender: My Thirty-year War.”

"If you have some thorns in your back, somebody needs to pull them out for you. We need buddies. The sense of belonging is born in the family and later includes friends, neighbors, community and country. That is why the idea of a nation is really important."

"Some dreams are best not to wake up from. On Lubang, I believed I was defending Japan by making the island into a stronghold as best as I could with my two comrades, Shimada and Kozuka. When they both died, I continued my mission alone. When World War II ended for me in 1974, the past all seemed like a dream."

"People cannot live completely by themselves. If you have any doubts about this, just imagine being truly alone. Can you find all your food, make a fire, sew your clothes and take care of yourself when you get sick or injured? Can you make it?"

"One must always be civic-minded. Every minute of every day, for 30 years, I served my country. I have never even wondered if that was good or bad for me as an individual."

"History is written by the victors. Since the end of WWII, the Japanese history taught in our schools has been based on a U.S. program to promote war guilt and on left-wing propaganda. I don’t blame the United States for this. They wanted a weak Japan, and their mission is accomplished; Japanese educated after the war do not have any confidence in their culture or in themselves."

"Japan was forced to participate in WWII. The ABCD Powers (America, Britain, China and the Dutch East Indies) imposed such strong sanctions on Japan that we had no way to import oil, steel or anything. We were going to die or we were going to be invaded and enslaved."

"Japanese political leaders were wise in the past. All Asian nations except Thailand and Japan were colonized. In our case, the Tokugawa Shogunate made a smooth transition to the first Meiji government in order to save us from colonization."

"Once you have burned your tongue on hot miso soup, you even blow on the cold sushi. This is how the Japanese government now behaves toward the U.S. and other nations. We are so careful and let others devour so much, yet they are always hungry for more from Japan."

"Without a huge shock, the sleepy-head, ignorant Japanese will never wake up. The situation today is similar to what we had in 1853 when [Commodore] Perry’s Black Ships arrived. Unless Nodong or Taepodong missiles fly over our heads, we do nothing to protect ourselves."

"Parents should raise more independent children. When I was living in Brazil in the 1980s, I read that a 19-year-old Japanese man killed his parents after failing the university entrance exam. I was stunned. Why had he killed his parents instead of moving out? I guess he didn’t have enough confidence. I thought this was a sign that Japanese were getting too weak. I decided to move back to Japan to establish a nature school to give children more power."

"Men should never give up. I never do. I would hate to lose."

"Men should never compete with women. If they do, the guys will always lose. That is because women have a lot more endurance. My mother said that, and she was so right."

"Never complain. When I did, my mother said that if I didn’t like my life, I could just give up and die. She reminded me that when I was inside her, I told her that I wanted to be born, so she delivered me, breastfed me and changed my diapers. She said that I had to be brave."

"Parents should remember that they are supposed to die before their children. Nobody will help them later on, so the greatest gift parents can give their children is independence."

"Life is not fair and people are not equal. Some people eat better than others. At our nature school, children participate in survival games. For example, they must prepare their own dinner from ingredients they find. Bartering is allowed but still some children will have a feast compared to others."



Hiroo Onoda: Japanese soldier who refused to surrender for 29 years has died

Army intelligence officer hid in a Philippines jungle until 1974

By [Kike] HEATHER SAUL, the Independent, Friday 17 January 2014

Hiroo Onoda, the last Japanese imperial soldier to come out of hiding and surrender 29 years after the end of World War II has died aged 91.

Onoda refused to surrender for 29 years, only coming out of hiding when his former commander flew to the Lubang Island in the Philippines in March 1974 to reverse his 1945 orders to stay behind and spy on American troops.

Onoda, an army intelligence officer, died on Thursday after a brief stay in a Tokyo hospital. Chief government spokesman Yoshihide Suga on Friday expressed his condolences, praising Onoda for his strong will to live and indomitable spirit.

Onoda and another World War II holdout, Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi, who emerged from the jungle in 1972, caused a sensation when they returned home to huge heroes' welcomes.

After graduating from school in 1939, Onoda worked for a Japanese trading firm in Shanghai before he was drafted into a military academy.

He was dispatched to Lubang, about 150 kilometers (90 miles) southwest of Manila in December 1944.

Most Japanese soldier surrendered when US troops landed on Lubang in February 1945, though hundreds remained missing for years after the war.

But Onoda refused to give up, despite at least four searches during which family members appealed to him over loudspeakers and flights dropped leaflets urging him to surrender.

Hiroo Onoda emerges from the jungle on Lubang island in the Philippines on 11 March 1974 He told ABC in 2010 that the leaflets were filled with mistakes "so I judged it was a plot by the Americans."

Struggling to feed himself, his mission became one of survival. He stole rice and bananas from local people down the hill, and shot their cows to make dried beef.

The turning point came on 20 February, 1974, when he met Norio Suzuki, a young traveller, who ventured to Lubang in pursuit of Onoda.

Suzuki returned to Japan and contacted the government, which located Onoda's superior, Maj. Yoshimi Taniguchi, and flew him to his hideout in Lubang to deliver his surrender order in person.

In his formal surrender to Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, Onoda wore his 30-year-old imperial army uniform, cap and sword, all still in good condition.

After the furore surrounding his return died down, Onoda bought a ranch in Brazil. He later was head of a children's nature school in northern Japan.

"I don't consider those 30 years a waste of time," Onoda said in an interview in 1995. "Without that experience, I wouldn't have my life today.

"I do everything twice as fast so I can make up for the 30 years," he added. "I wish someone could eat and sleep for me so I can work 24 hours a day."



Yokoi Shouichi

Yokoi Shouichi

Yokoi Shōichi 横井庄一

Yokoi Shōichi 横井庄一 (March 31, 1915 – September 22, 1997) was a Japanese sergeant in the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during the Second World War. He was among the last three Japanese holdouts to be found after the end of hostilities in 1945, discovered in the jungles of Guam on 24 January 1972, almost 28 years after US forces had regained control of the island in 1944.

Yokoi was born in Saori, Aichi Prefecture. He was an apprentice tailor when he was conscripted in 1941.

War Years and Post-war Survival

Initially, Yokoi served with the 29th Infantry Division in Manchukuo. In 1943, he was transferred to the 38th Regiment in the Mariana Islands. He arrived on Guam in February 1943. When American forces captured the island in the 1944 Battle of Guam, Yokoi went into hiding with ten other Japanese soldiers. Seven of the original ten eventually moved away and only three remained in the region. These men separated but visited each other until about 1964, when the other two died in a flood. The last eight years Yokoi lived alone. Yokoi survived by hunting, primarily at night. He used native plants to make clothes, bedding, and storage implements, which he carefully hid in his cave.

On the evening of 24 January 1972, Yokoi was discovered in the jungle by Jesus Dueñas and Manuel De Gracia, two local men checking their shrimp traps along a small river on Talofofo. They had assumed Yokoi was a villager from Talofofo, but he thought his life was in danger and attacked them. They managed to subdue him and carried him out of the jungle with minor bruising.

"It is with much embarrassment, but I have returned", he said upon his return to Japan. The remark would become a popular saying in Japanese.

For twenty-eight years, he had hidden in an underground jungle cave, fearing to come out of hiding even after finding leaflets declaring World War II had ended, believing them to be false Allied propaganda.

Yokoi was the third-to-last Japanese soldier to surrender after the war, preceding Second Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda (relieved from duty by his former commanding officer on 9 March 1974) and Private Teruo Nakamura (arrested 18 December 1974).

After a whirlwind media tour of Japan, he married and settled down in rural Aichi Prefecture. Yokoi became a popular television personality and an advocate of austere living. He was featured in a 1977 documentary called Yokoi and His Twenty-Eight Years of Secret Life on Guam. He eventually received the equivalent of US$300 in back pay, and a small pension.

Although he never met Emperor Hirohito, while visiting the grounds of the Imperial Palace, Yokoi said, "Your Majesties, I have returned home ... I deeply regret that I could not serve you well. The world has certainly changed, but my determination to serve you will never change."[5]
Yokoi died in 1997 of a heart attack at the age of 82, and was buried at a Nagoya cemetery, under a gravestone that had originally been commissioned by his mother in 1955, after Yokoi had been officially declared dead.

The Shoichi Yokoi Memorial Hall opened in 2006 in Nakagawa-ku, Nagoya. Admission is free.



Shoichi Yokoi, a Japanese survivor, died on September 22nd, aged 82

The Economist, Oct 9th 1997

THE hiding place on the Pacific island of Guam where Shoichi Yokoi lived for nearly 27 years was destroyed by a typhoon. Never mind, the replica that has replaced it looks just as inhospitable to the many Japanese who come to marvel how their compatriot survived. Only in January 1972, when he was 56, did Sergeant Yokoi of the Japanese Imperial Army abandon his jungle life after being spotted fishing by two local people, and, as he said, after being urged by the spirits of his dead comrades to come out of hiding.

He was taken to hospital, where the doctors wanted to X-ray him. Unfamiliar with modern medical equipment, he told them, “If you want to kill me, kill me quickly.” The doctors calmed the living fossil who had adapted to the jungle, living on fruit and nuts, with fish and the odd rat or frog for protein. When his army uniform rotted away, Mr Yokoi dressed in clothes that he had woven from tree bark. It was helpful that he had been a tailor in civilian life.

He returned to Japan, 31 years after he had left, to a flag-waving welcome, but he was a reluctant hero. “I have a gun from the emperor and I have brought it back,” he said. He apologised that he could not fulfil his duties. “I am ashamed that I have come home alive.”

His was the guilt of the survivor. Of the 22,000 Japanese soldiers defending Guam, some 19,000 were killed when the Americans regained the island in 1944, and 2,000 survivors fled to the jungle. Most gave up when Japan surrendered in 1945, but Mr Yokoi and a few others did not, apparently unaware that the war had ended. His two remaining colleagues died in 1964, leaving Mr Yokoi on his own for another eight years.

An oddity of history

While admiring Shoichi Yokoi's resourcefulness as a Japanese Robinson Crusoe, the post-war generations have not shown much sympathy for his grief that, by eventually returning, he had let down the army and Emperor Hirohito. Among older Japanese there may be nostalgia for the imperial days, but to most modern Japanese emperor worship is an historical oddity: fewer than half of the Japanese polled cared a cent about the ascension of Akihito, Hirohito's son, to the chrysanthemum throne in 1990 after his father's death. But to the likes of Mr Yokoi, doing the bidding of the emperor, a descendant of the Sun Goddess, was a religious duty relayed by his more worldly army superiors. As Muslims pray facing towards Mecca, so Japanese schoolchildren at that time turned towards Tokyo in morning assembly. These were the days of the kamikaze pilots who were prepared to crash into oblivion, because that was the emperor's command. In Saipan, families hurled themselves over a cliff shouting loyalty to the emperor, rather than be captured by the advancing Americans. (So-called Banzai Cliff is another place that draws astonished Japanese tourists.) Only after the war, at the behest of the Americans who thought that emperor worship contributed to the Japanese view of themselves as superior to other races, did Hirohito renounce divinity in his “Declaration of Humanity”.

Although Mr Yokoi was the most famous of the old warriors to return from the jungle, there were others who refused to believe that Japan could have been defeated. Two years after Mr Yokoi returned, Hiroo Onoda, a lieutenant, was discovered in the Philippines with two other Japanese soldiers. His rifle (unlike Mr Yokoi's) still worked and he had potted a few locals over the years. The strength of his commitment to emperor and country was, if anything, even fiercer than Mr Yokoi's. Only when his former commander was flown to the Philippines was Mr Onoda persuaded to surrender.

Mr Yokoi adapted to the hustle of modern Japan remarkably quickly. Nine months after returning he was married. He became a pacifist, wrote the first of his two books and became a television commentator on survival tactics. He even stood for election to Japan's upper house of parliament in 1974.

Yet he was unhappy with many aspects of Japan. The country was experiencing heady economic growth. What had happened to its old qualities of elegance, harmony and simplicity? “Golf courses should be turned into bean fields,” wrote Mr Yokoi. The Japanese people should live simply, frugally and without waste. Mr Yokoi was, according to the slogan of his election campaign, an “endurable-life critic”. His view of life contained much wartime puritanism: “Don't eat excessively. Don't wear too much. Don't be vain, use your brain.” Evidently, Japanese voters preferred not to, and Mr Yokoi was not elected. Undeterred, he continued to preach the virtues of autarky.

In his later years, Mr Yokoi faded from public life. He took up pottery and calligraphy, grew organic vegetables and became ever more disenchanted with modern Japan. “I'm not happy with the present system of education, politics, religion, just about everything,” he said. After several years of illness he died of a heart attack. And perhaps there was heartbreak, too, as he looked back fondly at his “natural” life in the jungle.



Kike Mike Kaplan writes that no Jap (nor any other "goy") may now be permitted to live in peace:

"How do you live alone in the wilderness for thirty years? By abandoning all modern sense of time, in which things are begun and completed. The task of survival was perpetual, getting food “a continuous hardship.” Yokoi trapped shrimp, gathered breadfruit, stewed coconuts, captured and devoured crabs, snails, eels, birds and rats. Rat liver was good, but the idea of liking one food or another was immaterial – he ate everything. He wove clothes from bark fiber and sewed them with wire needles into which, over months, he had drilled eyes. He boiled all his water, washed daily, took such good care of his teeth that he had no cavities: “I continued to live for the sake of the Emperor and the Japanese spirit.”

"The “Japanese spirit,” like the emperor, was an ever-present if invisible abstraction during Yokoi’s youth. It incorporated the self-denial and service-unto-death ethic of bushido, the Warrior’s Way. It celebrated the mute determination of ganbaru, a tenacious persistence through adversity, to which phrases like “buckling down” or “seeing it through” are but faint echoes. When he returned to Japan, a time-traveler from a less questioning past, Yokoi became a source of mingled pride and shame to his countrymen: a reminder of values so strong that they could maintain life through three hungry decades, yet so weak that they could not survive prosperity. Yokoi married, settled, and became a well-known advocate for simple living. Japan listened to him with respect, but did not follow his advice – for, just as there is more to life than survival, there is more to society than discipline. We are not yet, nor may ever be, alone in the jungle."

Attun Palalin

Private Teruo Nakamura (中村 輝夫 Nakamura Teruo, October 8, 1919 − June 15, 1979) was a Taiwan-born soldier of the Imperial Japanese Army from the indigenous Amis tribe, who fought for Japan in World War II and did not surrender until 1974. He is the last known Japanese hold-out to surrender after the end of hostilities in 1945.

His name in his native Amis language was Attun Palalin. The Taiwanese press referred to him as Lee Guang-Hui (李光輝), a name of which he learned only after his repatriation in 1975.

Nakamura was an Amis aborigine from Japanese-colonized Taiwan. Born in 1919, he was enlisted into a Takasago Volunteer Unit of the Imperial Japanese army in November 1943. He was stationed on Morotai Island in Indonesia shortly before the island was overrun by the Allies in September 1944 in the Battle of Morotai. He was declared dead in March 1945.

Nakamura's hut was discovered accidentally by a pilot in mid-1974. In November 1974, the Japanese Embassy to Indonesia in Jakarta requested the assistance of the Indonesian government in organizing a search mission, which was conducted by the Indonesian Air Force on Morotai and led to his arrest by Indonesian soldiers on December 18, 1974. He was flown to Jakarta and hospitalized there. News of his discovery reached Japan on December 27, 1974. Nakamura decided to be repatriated straight to Taiwan, bypassing Japan, and died there of lung cancer five years later in 1979.



高砂義勇隊

Takasago Volunteers ( Takasago Giyūtai) were volunteer soldiers in the Imperial Japanese Army, recruited from the Taiwanese aboriginal tribes during World War II.

The Imperial Japanese Army was interested in the using Taiwanese aborigines in special forces operations, as they were viewed as being more physically capable of operating in the tropical and sub-tropical regions in Southeast Asia than ethnic Japanese, and, coming from a hunter-gatherer culture, would be able to operate with minimal logistics support. The Japanese military recruited many young men from friendly tribes into service shortly before the start of World War II. The total number was confidential and estimates on the numbers recruited range from 1800 to 5000 men. Training was under the direction of officers from the Nakano School, which specialized in insurgency and guerilla warfare. Initially assigned to transport and supply units, as the war condition progressively deteriorated for Imperial Japanese forces, the Takasago Volunteers were sent to front line as combat troops. Units consisting entirely of "Takasago Volunteers" served with distinction in the Philippines, Netherlands East Indies, Solomon Islands and New Guinea, where they fought against Americans and Australians forces even before Taiwanese volunteers were recruited into service.

Towards the end of the war, 15 officers and 45 enlisted members of the Takasago Volunteers were organized into the Kaoru Special Attack Corps for a suicide mission similar to that of the Giretsu Kuteitai, and attacked a USAAF landing strip on Leyte.

The Takasago Volunteers were well known for their jungle survival ability. The most notable example is Attun Palalin, a holdout discovered in Indonesia in 1975. He lived in solitude in the jungle for almost 20 years after leaving other holdouts in 1956.

高砂義勇隊(たかさごぎゆうたい)は太平洋戦争末期、台湾原住民により編成された日本軍の部隊。フィリピン、ニューギニアなど密林地帯の戦場に投入するために創設された。隊員は軍属であり軍人ではないが戦闘に参加し、戦死者の割合が作戦を共にした軍人よりも多かったといわれている。高砂義勇軍とも。

台湾の高砂族志願兵からなる部隊である。7度にわたって編成され、合計1,800-4,000名の原住民が参加したと考えられている。当初1,000人の募集に対して40万以上の志願があり、倍率は400倍以上となった。自らの血で志願のための嘆願書を書いたものも多く、落選した者は悔しさのあまりその場で泣き崩れたりしたという。

伝統的な生活を営む高砂族の勇敢で純朴な性質や、耳が良く、夜目が効き、素足で音も無く夜の密林を駆け巡ると言われる程の身体能力の高さが、東南アジアの密林地帯において有用な戦力になると期待された。一部の部族には首狩りの風習が残るなど勇敢であること、強きことは原住民に取って美徳であった。
高砂義勇隊に関連した裁判[編集]

戦後、未払いの軍事郵便貯金の払い戻し(確定債務問題)、戦死者の靖国神社への合祀などを巡って生存者や遺族の一部は裁判等で係争を続けていたが、2005年9月30日の大阪高裁の判決で敗訴が確定した。大阪高裁での判決は、地元原住民メディアも取材し即日台湾にて放送された。反対する生存者や遺族も居り、また靖国神社への参拝などを希望し、継続している。靖国神社が「いったん合祀した英霊を分割する事は出来ない」と主張するなか、台湾団結連盟靖国神社参拝事件に反発して‎2005年6月14日には台湾の立法委員(国会議員)高金素梅(チワスアリ)ら60人の台湾原住民が靖国神社を訪れた。これは戦没した義勇兵の霊を取り戻す儀式「還我祖霊」を行う為との説明ではあったが、実際は以前に「還我祖霊」を靖国神社にて挙行しており(1回目は靖国神社も認可を出している)、また参加した60人の台湾原住民への来日募集要項に記載されている日程は、大部分は日本の観光地めぐりであり、いろいろ議論を引き起こしている。

今回の高金素梅らの行為は台湾の各種メディアで大きく報道され、台湾内部でその行為の是非について議論を呼んだ。支持者と反対派では、この報道についての受け取り方が大きく異なっている。

支持者から見た見方

台湾原住民の習慣に先祖を自宅で祭る文化があり、自宅で先祖を祭らない者は「不孝者」として、コミュニティ、世間体から軽蔑視される文化があった。このような背景の下で、台湾原住民及びその他台湾出身の旧日本軍遺族の強い意思で、「迎霊招魂」の儀式の挙行を望んでいるのに、靖国神社が断固として台湾の遺族の意思、そして台湾の文化を無視した点については、台湾の一部メディアは高金素梅ら及び遺族に対して同情を示し、また日本政府及び靖国神社の強硬な対応を批判的に捉えている。

反対派から見た見方

各種メディアの報道ではこの運動は台湾人の意見を代表するものではないとの批判的な意見が出されている。また、「「迎霊招魂」の儀式の挙行を望んでいる」という主張に対して、過去に「迎霊招魂の儀式」を靖国神社側が許諾し一度であるが挙行されているため、支持者の主張の一部は満たされているはずと靖国神社側は主張している。大阪地裁への訴訟の際にも、台湾原住民本人の許諾なしで数百名の名簿を作成。しかしその名簿を元に個人確認を行った結果、ほとんどは同意なしで名簿化されたことが確認され名簿からの抹消が行われた。

戦後、日華平和条約により、日本国籍を喪失し日本人でなくなったとの理由で、日本政府は台湾人を戦争被害の補償対象から除外し、元軍人・軍属やその遺族に対して障害年金、遺族年金、恩給、弔慰金、また戦争中の未払い給与、軍事郵便貯金等の支払いを一切行わなかった。現在でも多くの未払給与があり、一部の人が弔慰金を受け取ったのみである。台湾国内においても、日本への協力者として長年厳しい対応をされた。しかし日本政府と台湾との国交がないため、補償に関する協議は現在まで行われていない。

1974年末にインドネシアのモロタイ島で発見された台湾人日本兵、中村輝夫(本名、スニオン、李光輝)も、台湾原住民アミ族出身の義勇隊員である。彼の確認が、日本の世論において「高砂義勇軍」が話題に上った最初のきっかけとなった。彼の発見をきっかけに給与が未払で補償がないことに関する世論の批判もおき、1990年代に戦病死者及び重傷者を対象に一人200万円(台湾ドルで約43万ドル)の弔慰金が支払われたが、給与は現在でも未払である(以下の柳本の文献参照)。また、当時強制的に軍事郵便貯金とされた給与も引き出せなかったが、これは120倍にして返却することが決まり1995年に支払いが開始され一部の元隊員は受け取った。しかし平均1000円ほどの残高を所持し、当時としては大金だったのに120倍で引き出しても12万円にしかならない。これに抗議して、1996年6月に、日本大使館に相当する台北の交流協会を元隊員が襲撃する事件が起こった[1][2]。現在でも、物価上昇を考慮すると、数年間の戦闘の対価としてはあまりに少額として抗議する元隊員も多い。

台湾では戦後、台湾原住民の周麗梅が慰霊碑を建立し、現在は長男の邱克平、甥の簡福源が管理しているが、慰霊碑の敷地を提供していた台北郊外の観光会社が、新型肺炎(SARS)流行による日本人観光客激減で倒産し、維持管理が困難になったことから慰霊碑は撤去されそうになった[4]。この事態は産経新聞(2004年7月4日付朝刊1面)に「高砂義勇兵慰霊碑に撤去の危機」と題して掲載され、読者などが「慰霊碑を守る会」を作って義援金を募集した[要出典]。その結果、3,398件の寄付の申し出があり、総額3,201万2,391円に上る義援金が集まり、慰霊碑は移転させて存続する事になった。 これを受けて、2005年8月には日本側の支援の動きに呼応して建立委員会(代表烏来郷元郷長(町長)簡福源氏)ができ、社団法人「台北県烏来郷高砂義勇隊記念協会」の設立準備を進める一方、台北県から県有地の提供を受けることで交渉がまとまった。

その後、2006年2月8日に慰霊碑の移設は完了したが、17日に中国時報により日本を賛美する碑文であると報道された[5]ことから反発が広がり、敷地を提供している台北県政府は慰霊碑の撤去を命令した[5][6]。地元側は撤去に反対[5]し、24日には、強制撤去に着手した県政府と地元側の衝突が発生した。

話し合いの結果、記念碑は存続し、日本の遺族団体などが寄贈した、「皇民」など日本語が入った石碑8基を撤去するというギリギリの妥協案で決着した。しかし記念碑側面に刻まれた「大和魂」などの日本語の文言は覆い隠され、説明が無ければ慰霊碑であることすら分かりづらいものとなっている。撤去された8基の石碑は当面、台北県風景管理局に保管されている[要出典]。なお、慰霊碑撤去を要請した県長は中国国民党所属であり、民主進歩党は撤去に反対していた。



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