The last Han emperor was Zhu Youlang (朱由榔), the Prince of Gui (桂王), who reigned as the Southern Song Yongli Emperor (永曆帝), Constantine.

He was born in 1623, and reigned from 1646.12.24 until his execution on 1662.06.01.

The emperor, his family, and much of his court were converted to Christ and baptized by the German Jesuit Andreas Xavier Koffler (d. 1652).

The emperor was baptized as Constantine. His father's wife, the Empress Dowager Wang Zhaosheng, was baptized as Helena. His natural mother, the Lady Ma, was baptized as Maria. And his wife, the Empress Wang, was baptized as Anna.

The Manchurian invaders of China forced Constantine to flee Zhaoqing, Guangdong, in 1646. His entourage fled to Guilin, Quanzhou, Wuzhou, Nanning, Guangnan, Anlong, and Kunming, in Yunnan. They sought refuge in Burma in 1661. Fighting broke out between the Ming loyalists and the forces of the Burmese king Pindale, and of Pindale's brother-successor Pye.

After a Qing army invaded Burma, King Pye handed Constantine over to General Wú Sānguì (吳三桂), "The Prince Who Pacifies The West" (平西王), in 1662. General Wu had opened the gates of the Great Wall at Shanhai Pass (Shānhǎi Guān; 山海關), on 1944.05.24, to allow the Prince Dorgon ("Badger") and the Manchurian invaders into China. Wu then led the Manchurian/Qing campaign against the Southern Ming.

Emperor Constantine is said to have urged General Wu to kill him faster because he was so disgusted to look at the traitor's face.

In 1673, in response to an order to move to Manchuria, General Wu declared himself the All-Supreme-Military Generalissimo (天下都招討兵馬大元帥). He then declared himself Emperor Changbai (長白) of China, the Prince of Zhou (周王), ruler of "The Great Zhou Dynasty". Wu died in 1678, and his foces were defeated later that year. Elhe Taifin Hūwangdi, The Kangxi Emperor (康熙帝) of the Qing Dynasty, had Wu's corpse scattered across the provinces of China.

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