# TOTAL FAGGISM & THE KIKE'S WHORE CHARLEMAGNE

MONDAY, OCTOBER 8, 2012

Jews Getting into Lithuania From Charlemagne's Invitation to Germany

Nadene Goldfoot
Already in the year 300 CE Jews were scattered in many places from the fall of Jerusalem in 70CE and the Bar Kokhba's Uprising of 135 CE.  That was it. Though some were able to remain, many fled throughout the Roman Empire except Britain where they were not welcomed until 1066.  They went to Asia Minor, East to the Caspian Sea area and to the Persian Gulf.  They were even living in Cologne, Germany.  In fact, Jews were living in Germany by the 4th century.  It was in 321 that Emperor Constantine issued regulations allowing this Jewish community to have rabbis and elders.  Ashkenazi Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north.  Jewish soldiers were even found to be in the Roman garrisons of the period. 

"Many Jews fled to Mesopotamia, which is modern Iraq, and the rest fled to lands around the Mediterranean, presently known as southeastern Spain, southern France, southern Italy, Greece, Cyprus, and Turkey. Later, the Jews began to head north (to present day northern France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia) and northern Africa (Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco)." Jews were established early along the Rhone River in Lyons in France. 

Litvaks were what both my grandparents were. My grandmother (Bobba) was so proud to be one.   My grandfather, Nathan Goldfus, later changed to Goldfoot, was born in Telsiai, Lithuania and my grandmother, Hattie Jermulowske, was born in Lazdijai,  Suwalki, Poland, next door.  They met in the mountains of a tiny mining town of Council, Idaho.  They only spoke Yiddish, so must have been elated to find each other, both single, she being 18 years old and he 23.  She had been a recent immigrant to the USA but he had left Lithuania and meandered through England, then Dublin, Ireland into Canada and finally worked himself into Idaho.
 They most likely were speaking the main Yiddish dialects in Europe, The Litvishe Yiddish (Lithuanian Yiddish) dialect that was spoken by Jews in Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, Estonia and the Suwalki regionof NE Poland.  Yiddish has 4 main components;  Hebrew (written in Hebrew) old French and Italian, German and Slavic.  The German stands out as what was used as medieval German of the Middle Rhine region.  German words make up about 85% of the vocabulary and basic grammatical structure.  Hebrew is found in the religious and intellectual areas.  Recently English was entering the language.  Neither one could read or write English and I doubt if they were even schooled in Lithuanian or Russian, either.   My grandmother never did get the chance to go to school. 

Charlemagne, Ruler of France and Western Germany Invites Jews to Live There for Economic Reasons 742-814

By the 8th Century, Jews began migrating and living in Lithuania, probably coming out of Germany.  Possibly my paternal ancestors of Goldfus were with them.  They could not depend on their safety there.  It depended on the whims of those in power.

First Settlement of Jews in Great Lithuanian Princedom orMagnus Ducatus Lithuaniae

In 1387 the Christian Catholic religion was introduced all over Lithuania.  
In 1388 The Jews  had the good fortune to be granted a charter by Vytautas (Witold).  They were invited by the Grand Dukes Gediminas and Vytautas  where they formed a class of freemen that were subject in all criminal cases directly under the jurisdiction of the grand duke and  his official representatives.  In petty suits they were under the jurisdiction of local officials on an equal footing with the lesser nobles (szlachta), boyars, and other free citizens.  This meant that by living there they were protected as well as their property.  They had the freedom to maintain their religious rituals.  They were allowed to lend money and were protected against blood libels.  The community prospered.  Since Christians were not allowed to lend money, this may be why the dukes invited them.  They were valuable  as the merchants and financiers of Christian Europe.

The winds changed and in 1495, 3 years after the major Spanish Inquisition in Spain, these 6,000 Jews were expelled by Alexander Jagiellon, the Grand Duke. their property was confiscated.   Then the winds shifted again and they were allowed to return in 1503, 8 years later and he was the King of Poland.  He gave the Jews back only part their property. 

The Christians now living there, mostly Germans, were envious.  They had organized into unions and saw Jews as competitors. 

Later on, the Lithuanian statute or law of 1566 placed many restrictions on the Jews and imposed laws including the requirement that they had to wear special clothing that stood out, including yellow caps for men and yellow kerchiefs for women. 

The northeast section of Lithuania was Zamut.  The first Jewish settlers there were involved with the business of customs and tax collection.  Vilna Jews were expelled and came here to live in 1827 and Memel Jews moved into there in 1567. 

Many Lithuania Jewish institutions were destroyed in the Khmelnytsky Uprising.  Nevertheless, the Jews must have toughed it out because their population grew from about 120,000 in 1569 to about 250,000 by 1792.  I found my ancestor, Iones "Jonas" Goldfus,  living in about 1730 in Telsiai, Lithuania.  It's one of the oldest towns in Lithuania, mentioned in 1320.  .  Until 1795 it was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Kingdom and was under Russian rule. 

From 1569 to 1795 was the period of actual unification of the Great Lithuanian Dukedom with Poland within the framework of the "Polish Republic" or Rzeczpospolita.  

My grandmother, Hattie, lived in Lazdey, Suwalki and Jews had already settled there by the end of the 16th century.  They had permission to live there form King Jan Sobiesky.   Jews had occupations there by the town was surrounded by Jewish farms and farmers until WWI. 

People made a living from agriculture throughout this time from breeding cattle and poultry, fishing in rivers and lakes and harvesting trees.  A few Jews were peddlers.  (My grandfather took this up upon living in Portland, Oregon. Hattie's brother and sister's husband stayed in rural Eastern Oregon and dealt with buying hides.)  A few Jews worked with import and export of agricultural products.  A few were granted the privilege to lease the collection of levies..  Many Jewish artisans and merchants settled near the taverns and storehouses near crossroads and in river ports that sprung up  and became villages and towns. 

By the 18th Century 83 settlements were granted recognition as a town.  Right for commercial activity was grated to 87 settlements.  There were no differences between small and big towns this way. 

Christian Lithuanians still believed in devils and ghosts and Jews replaced those thoughts in Blood libels, saying that we killed children and drank their blood. 

After 1793's Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Lithuanian Jews became subjects of the Russian Empire.  Poland and Lithuanian were in what was called the "Pale of Settlement" an area set off where Jews were allowed to live. There were many harsh limitations imposed on the Jews living here that continued until WWI.  (Note the movie of Fiddler on the Roof.)   They were not allowed into Russia proper. 

Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Jewish_history
Book:  Preserving Our Litvak Heritage-a history of 31 Jewish communities in Lithuania by Josef Rosin by JewishGen, Inc. 
http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/People/displace.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Germany
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashkenazi_Jews
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10212-lyons



http://jewishfactsfromportland.blogspot.ca/2012/10/jews-getting-into-lithuania-from.html



In today’s selection – in the 9th century CE, the great Charlemagne himself had recruited Jewish trading communities from Italy to the Rhine region in an enlightened move to add the dynamic of trade to his largely agricultural kingdom. These Jews called the area to which they relocated Ashkenaz and became know as Ashkenazy Jews. Their plight turned perilous three centuries later with the rise of the First Crusade:

“Relations between Jews and Christians remained more or less stable until near the end of the eleventh century, when pressure began to build for a crusade to rescue the Christian holy sites in Palestine, especially the Holy Sepulchre, from the hands of the Muslims. The religious enthusiasm directed violently against the distant nonbelievers came to be directed also against the Jews, for as some Christians argued, ‘Here we are going to make war against the infidels in the Holy Land, when we have infidels in our own midst.’ When the mobs of the First Crusade began to sweep eastward across Europe in the spring of 1096, among their early victims were the Jews of the Rhineland communities. Local lords and church authorities on the whole tried to live up to their legal obligation of defending their Jewish clients, but they lacked the forces to prevent the onslaught. The result was widespread massacres and forced baptisms. Rather than risk falling into the hands of the Christian mobs, many Jews committed suicide, the men killing their own wives and children first and then themselves. This was the first great trauma suffered by Ashkenazic Jewry, but there was far more in store. The Second and the Third Crusades brought their own horrors. In England, the Jews of York committed mass suicide in 1190 rather than fall into the hands of the warriors of the Third Crusade, an event still commemorated weekly in many Ashkenazic synagogues.

“Hostility now became the normal attitude of the average European toward the Jews. This hostility was partly grounded in fear. The ordinary illiterate and superstitious medieval European peasant saw the Jews, with their strange customs, odd religious practices, and mysterious Hebrew prayers, not just as social and economic outsiders, but as weird practitioners of black magic directed both against man and God, perhaps even agents of the devil. This attitude came to its fullest expression in the blood libel, the widespread belief that Jews regularly murder non-Jews, particularly children, in order to use their blood for magic or religious rites, especially for Passover. The blood libel had arisen as far back as Hellenistic times, when it was directed by pagans against Christians as well as Jews, but it achieved its fullest and most destructive form in medieval Christian Europe. For Christians, the central religious rite was the mass in which, they were told, wine and bread were changed into the blood and body of Christ. Their priests regularly taught them that the Jews, in their perverse wickedness, had spilled the blood of their savior. Against the background of these ideas, it was natural for the credulous masses to imagine that the Jews practiced diabolical counter-rituals involving blood. It was likewise rumored that Jews would steal communion wafers and torture Jesus by sticking pins in them and by otherwise defiling them. Sometimes Jews were accused of using the wafers for unholy magical rituals.

“The first full-fledged blood accusation was made against the Jews of Norwich, England, in 1144. They were accused of capturing a Christian child named William before Easter and hanging him on Good Friday in a reenactment of the torture and crucifixion of Christ. They were supposed to have performed this ritual in fulfillment of an alleged agreement among world Jewry that a Christian child should be killed each year. The Jews of Norwich were massacred. Similar accusations were subsequently brought against Jews all over Europe. The accusation took a particularly sinister turn when the belief became widespread that the Jews used the blood of a slaughtered Christian child to make the Passover matzot (wafers eaten in lieu of bread during the eight days of the festival). The details of the accusations varied, but the consequences were similar: Whole Jewish families, sometimes whole Jewish communities were killed, often by being burned alive. The most famous cases occurred in Gloucester (1168); Blois (1171); Vienna (1181); Saragossa (1182); Fulda (1235); Lincoln (1255) — commemorated by Chaucer in The Canterbury Tales, in connection with his own fictional tale of a blood libel — Munich (1286); Trent (1475); and Avila (1491). This last case was known as that of ‘the Holy Child of La Guardia’; it was concocted by those in Spain who were campaigning for the expulsion of the Jews, and it had the gravest possible political consequences.

“Christian intellectuals, even in the Middle Ages, did not give credence to the blood libel, and in the sophisticated Islamic world in this period, the blood libel and the image of the Jew as ally of the devil were unknown. Christian kings and the upper Christian clergy did what they could to defend the Jews against the outlandish accusations. After the Fulda blood libel of 1235, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II established a commission to study it; the commissioners quite correctly pointed out how absurd it was to accuse the Jews, whose religious law prohibited them from eating even an egg with a blood spot on it, of eating human blood for ritual or any other purpose.”

Author: Raymond P. Scheindlin
Title: A Short History of the Jewish People
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Date: Copyright 1998 by Raymond P. Scheindlin
Pages: 101-104




Ashkenazic Jewry in France

From "A Crash Course in Jewish History", JewishHistory.org

When the Roman Empire dissolved the area of Provence was taken over by the Visigoth tribe. They were particularly cruel, primitive and fanatical Christians. Under their reign the Jews in Provence were persecuted very severely. From the fourth until about the tenth century we have no records of organized Jewish life in Provence. It was the darkest part of the Dark Ages, when all of Europe was illiterate, uncivilized and uncultured.

The Muslims came to Spain, then crossed the Pyrenees in the north and came to Provence intending to conquer all of Europe. They were defeated on the eastern front outside of Vienna and on the western front outside of Provence. Nevertheless, for about 80 years the Muslims controlled Provence. These Muslims were not the tolerant, friendly Moors who partnered with the Jews to produce the Golden Age of Spain. The ones who made it all the way north to the Pyrenees were the fanatics like the Almohads, whom the Jews suffered terribly under.

Therefore, the Jews of Provence welcomed Charlemagne (c. 742–814 CE), the French knight who finally drove out the Muslims and laid the foundations for the French state, becoming the first king of the Holy Roman Empire. The Jews supported Charlemagne because he opposed the Visigoths and Muslims. Even though Charlemagne is not known in history as a particularly benign monarch, he had a following among the Jews, because he freed them from the persecution of the Visigoths and Muslims.

Under him, the Jewish community in France first flourished, especially in Provence.

Three Roles of the Jews in Europe

The Jews fulfilled three roles in Provence – but later throughout Roman Catholic Europe.

The first and prime role of the Jew was an economic one. The general strength of the Jewish community in Provence lay in the fact that they were very necessary to the economic life of the area. In fact, that would be their undoing. It is a general truism about the Middle Ages: If the Jews were too successful they were doomed. The “trick” was to be successful but in a fashion that no one suspected.

It was a very difficult trick to pull off.

The Jew’s economic role came about in an unexpected way. In general, the Church boxed itself in by promoting certain dogmas that would not stand the test of time. (The great thing about Judaism is that it has no dogmas; nor does it have anybody who was considered infallible.) One of those dogmas was something promoted by the Council of Nicaea, and then later Councils throughout the Dark Ages: the prohibition of taking interest.

In the Dark Ages there was no necessity for capital to be invested – there was nothing to invest it in. The whole idea that money should earn money by investing it is a modern idea, to a certain extent at least.

Beginning in the tenth century, when Europe came out of the Dark Ages, commerce and trade between Charlemagne and the Arabs in the south – including the opening of new trade routes to the Middle East – it became impossible economically to run a society on the basis of no interest. Therefore, the Church and noblemen improvised the idea that the Jew would become the middle man.

Say that nobleman X had 10,000 gold florins and nobleman Y wanted to borrow them. Nobleman X went to a Jew – sometimes a Jew that had nothing to do with money lending – and told him, “I am giving you 10,000 gold florins, and I want you to return to me 13,000.” In the Middle Ages, 30% interest was not high. The average interest rate than ran between 35-40%.

In any event, the Jew went to nobleman Y and said, “I have 10,000 gold florins and I want in exchange 40% interest.” When nobleman Y returned 14,000 florins the Jews returned 13,000 to nobleman X and kept 1,000 for himself.

That is how the Jew became a middle man – how, in effect, he became a banker.

Now, what happened if nobleman Y did not pay? More times than not it was the Jew who was made to pay. And if he could not pay, then more often than not he was harmed — physically. Therefore, it was a very dangerous business to be in. On top of that, in the Middle Ages the middle man rarely if even made sufficient profit to get ahead in life, so to speak. In actuality, then, the Jews were caught in a bind from both ends.

The Archetypal Scapegoat

The second “role” that the Jews played in Europe was the scapegoat.

Every society, generation and country has its scapegoats. That is not to say it is right or moral, of course, but it is a fact. Things are not going well because… and fill in the blank with your scapegoat of choice. The great benefit of a scapegoat is that it takes the blame away from oneself and places it on another.

In the medieval world, scapegoats were absolutely necessary for life. Over a third of the entire European population (25 million) died from the Black Plague within ten years. Entire cities became ghost towns. And it spared neither the clergy nor nobles. No one was spared. How does one explain that?

The medieval mind explained it as the wrath of God. But if everyone was a good Roman Catholic how could it be? And why did the saintly clergyman die?

If it was not the wrath of God, then it must have been the work of the devil. And who was an instrument of the devil more than the Jew? That is why during the time of the Black Death the number of Jews who died during pogroms was about the same as those who died from the plague itself.

Jews remained the archetypal scapegoat throughout European history. Hitler was only the most prominent modern proponent of Jews as the scapegoat. They betrayed German in the First World War, he claimed: they stabbed Germany in the back. All the ills of society could be blamed on the Jews, no matter how contradictory. Jews were at one and the same time accused of being Communists and Capitalists. They were a problem because they assimilate and at the same time because they did not; they remained isolated. All that is included in the “tradition” of the scapegoat.

The Cutting Edge

The third role the Jews played was that they could be used as scholars in an age that forbade scholarship, but encouraged scholasticism. There is a difference.

The Church was rarely open to new ideas. Winston Churchill once described Russia as being dragged kicking and screaming into the twentieth century. To a great extent, that was true of the medieval Church. Anything new was threatening and dangerous. And, in fact, did it end up being threatening and dangerous to the Church. Most notably, the scientific progress of the Renaissance is probably what undid the Church more than anything else. The Church’s real enemy was not the Muslims or Jews, but Galileo, Copernicus and others who destroyed the underpinnings of theology the Church had accepted as dogma.

Nevertheless, human beings by nature are curious. That is his greatest quality and his worst quality. Man as a species is never satisfied. He is never satisfied with what he has or what he knows. There are very few things that last forever. The Newtonian theories of physics have given way to Einstein and his theories. But all of the research and intellectual pressure today is to find a new system of physics. We are always stretching the frontiers, seeking something new, something different.

By branding a person a heretic – including the punishment of being burned at the stake – the Church effectively put a break on human invention for many centuries. Therefore, the Jews became the cutting edge of civilization. A Jew was going to Hell anyway, according to the Church, so let him read that book that the Church banned. The Jew not only read the book but most of the time he discussed it with Christian clergy or he rewrote it in Hebrew. A great deal of medieval scholarship was originally written in Hebrew and then translated into Latin.

The Jew could experiment. He could read what was unreadable. He could say what was unsayable. Of course, many times the Church burned him at the stake also. But in general he was a conduit for the advancement of civilization.

In conclusion, the Jew was absolutely necessary in Christian Europe commercially, psychologically and as the cutting edge of civilization. If the Jew did not exist beforehand, Christian Europe would have had to have invented him to cope with everyday life.

Posted in: Crash Course by Berel Wein adapted by Yaakov Astor



Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906

CHARLEMAGNE:

King of the Franks and emperor of the West; born April, 742; died Jan. 28, 814. His attitude toward the Jews was rather that of a clever politician than of a liberal-minded man. He realized the advantages to be derived by the country from the business abilities of the Jews, and gave them complete freedom with regard to their commercial transactions. Some Jews seem to have occupied prominent places at his court. Thus, Charlemagne had for his physician one named Ferragut. A Hebrew named Isaac was a member of an embassy sent by Charlemagne to Harun al-Rashid, probably in the capacity of dragoman. The account which connects Charlemagne with the coming of Makir to Narbonne is apocryphal.

But if the Jews were free in their commercial dealings, their political status generally remained almost the same under Charlemagne as under his predecessors. This is seen in his capitularies, some of which deal directly with the Jews. In bringing a charge against a Christian, the Jew was to have four, nine, or seven witnesses, while the Christian was held only to three. No Jew was to engage a Christian workman on a Sunday, nor was he to take in pledge, at the risk of the loss of his property and his right hand, anything that was the property of the Church. No Jew was allowed to force a Christian to go to prison as pledge for a Jew. When a Jew took an oath he was to hold a copy of the Pentateuch in his hand, and to swear: "So help me God! the same God that gave the Law on Mt. Sinai; may the leprosy of the Syrian Naaman not come upon me, as it did on him, nor the earth swallow me up as it did Dathan and Abiram; in this matter I have done thee nothing that is evil." Some of the capitularies were dictated by a spirit of proselytism. In regulating the laws of marriage, Charlemagne forbade the Jews to marry relatives within the seventh degree of consanguinity. "We desire," says he in this capitulary, "that any Christian man or woman, any Jew or Jewess, who would contract a marriage, should not be permitted to do so until after having provided a dowry and obtained in the Church of God the benediction of a priest." But the genuineness of some of the capitularies is not beyond doubt.

Bibliography:

Bougnet, Recueil, v. 679;
Pertz, Monumenta Germaniœ Historica, i. 194;
Aronius, Regesten, pp. 25-29;
Bédarride. Les Juifs en France, en Espagne et en Italie, pp. 73 et seq.;
Grätz, Gesch. der Juden, v. 182 et seq.;
Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 404;
Saige, Les Juifs du Languedoc, pp. 8, 42, 43, 79.



Wikipedia: History of the Jews in France:

It is certain that the Jews were numerous in France under Charlemagne, their position being regulated by law. Exchanges with the Orient strongly declined with the advent of the Saracen in the Mediterranean sea (Southern Italy), while oriental products such as gold, silk, black pepper or papyrus almost disappeared under the Carolingians. The only real link between the Orient and Occident was insured by the Radhanites Jewish traders.[9]
A formula for the Jewish oath was fixed by Charlemagne. They were allowed to enter into lawsuits with Christians, and in their relations with the latter were restrained only from making them work on Sunday. They were not allowed to trade in currency, wine, or grain. Of more importance is the fact that they were tried by the emperor himself, to whom they belonged. They engaged in export trade, an instance of this being found in the Jew whom Charlemagne employed to go to Palestine and bring back precious merchandise. Furthermore, when the Normans disembarked on the coast of Narbonnese Gaul they were taken for Jewish merchants. They boast, says one authority, of buying whatever they please from bishops and abbots. Isaac the Jew, who was sent by Charlemagne in 797 with two ambassadors to Harun al-Rashid, the fifth Abbasid Caliph, was probably one of these merchants. It is a curious fact that among the numerous provincial councils which met during Charlemagne's reign not one concerned itself with the Jews, although these had increased in number. In the same spirit as in the above-mentioned legends he is represented as asking the Baghdad calif for a rabbi to instruct the Jews whom he had allowed to settle at Narbonne (see History of the Jews in Babylonia). Louis le Débonnaire (814–833), faithful to the principles of his father, granted strict protection to the Jews, to whom he gave special attention in their position as merchants.



Charlemagne:
Capitulary for the Jews, 814

1. Let no Jew presume to take in pledge or for any debt any of the goods of the Church in gold, silver, or other form, from any Christian. But if he presume to do so, which God forbid, let all his goods be seized and let his right hand be cut off.


2. Let no Jew presume to take any Christian in pledge for any Jew or Christian, nor let him do anything worse; but if he presume to do so, let him make reparation according to his law, and at the same time he shall lose both pledge and debt.


3. Let no Jew presume to have a money-changer's table in his house, nor shall he presume to sell wine, grain, or other commodities there. But if it be discovered that he has done so all his goods shall be taken away from him, and he shall be imprisoned until he is brought into our presence.


4. Concerning the oath of the Jews against the Christians. Place sorrel twice around his body from head to feet; he ought to stand when he takes his oath, and he should have in his right hand the five books of Moses according to his law, and if he cannot have them in Hebrew he shall have them in Latin. "May the God who gave the law to Moses on Mount Sinai help me, and may the leprosy of Naamon the Syrian come upon me as it came upon him, and may the earth swallow me as it swallowed Dathan and Abiron, I have not committed evil against you in this cause."

Source.

From: J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologiae Cursus Completus, (Paris, 1862), Vol. XCVII, pp. 369-370, reprinted in Roy C. Cave & Herbert H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History, (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1936; reprint ed., New York: Biblo & Tannen, 1965), pp. 172-173.



Yitzhak "Isaac the Jew" "Isaac Judaeus" ben Nechemiah II (c.749 - c.836) MP
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Nicknames: ""Isaac the Jew" Diplomat of Charlemagne"
Birthdate: circa 749
Birthplace: Narbonne, Aude, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
Death: Died 836 in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France
Managed by: Samuel Austin - Le Maux (c)
Last Updated: October 3, 2012
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Immediate Family

Yehudah Zakkai ben Yitzhak
son

Natronai Ibn Habibai, Exilarch o...
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Makhir ibn Habibi al-Narboni, Nasi
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About Yitzhak "Isaac the Jew" "Isaac Judaeus" ben Nechemiah II
In as far back as 797 AD, Charlemagne, the founder of the Carolingian empire who was later crowned Holy Roman Emperor, sent a man named Isaac the Jew to the Baghdad caliph Harun al-Rashid. In 802, Isaac returned to Charlemagne’s court with an elephant as a gift to the king from the sultan.

In the "Gesta Karoli Magni ad Carcassonam et Narbonam" ('Deeds of Charlemagne at Carcassonne andNarbonne'), which, in recounting the story of the conquest of Narbonne in epic style, tells of the Jews of Narbonne requesting (through their interlocutor, one "Isaac the Jew") that Charlemagne confirm the status of their existing leader, [Makhir] a king of the house of David (it says nothing of him being imported at the time). The Jewish episode is only a sidelight in this Christian text, which was obviously written to showcase the foundation by Charlemagne of the important monastery of La Grasse, near Narbonne.

"Isaac the Jew" is Charlemagne's 25th cousin four times removed.
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Isaac the Jew", Charlemagne's Diplomat, is Caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (PBUH) (bint Atta (PBUH))'s fourth great aunt's sister's husband's third great grandson.
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Charlemagne is Caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (PBUH) (bint Atta (PBUH))'s 19th cousin 6 times removed.
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Abul-Abbas, Charlemagne's white elephant on Wikipedia
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Jews were numerous in France under Charlemagne, their position being regulated by law. Exchanges with the Orient strongly declined with the advent of the Saracen in the Mediterranean sea (Southern Italy), while oriental products such as gold, silk, black pepper or papyrus almost disappeared under the Carolingians. The only real link between the Orient and Occident was insured by the Radhanites Jewish traders.

A formula for the Jewish oath was fixed by Charlemagne. They were allowed to enter into lawsuits with Christians, and in their relations with the latter were restrained only from making them work on Sunday. They were not allowed to trade in currency, wine, or grain. Of more importance is the fact that they were tried by the emperor himself, to whom they belonged. They engaged in export trade, an instance of this being found in the Jew whom Charlemagne employed to go to Palestine and bring back precious merchandise. Furthermore, when the Normans disembarked on the coast of Narbonnese Gaul they were taken for Jewish merchants. They boast, says one authority, of buying whatever they please from bishops and abbots.

Isaac the Jew, who was sent by Charlemagne in 797 with two ambassadors (Lantfroi and Sigismond) to Harun al-Rashid, the fifth Abbasid Caliph, was probably one of these merchants. It is a curious fact that among the numerous provincial councils which met during Charlemagne's reign not one concerned itself with the Jews, although these had increased in number. In the same spirit as in the above-mentioned legends he is represented as asking the Baghdad calif for a rabbi to instruct the Jews whom he had allowed to settle at Narbonne (see History of the Jews in Babylonia). Louis le Débonnaire (814–833), faithful to the principles of his father, granted strict protection to the Jews, to whom he gave special attention in their position as merchants.

Abul-Abbas, also Abul Abaz or Abulabaz, was an Asian elephant given to Emperor Charlemagne by the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, in 797. The elephant's name and events from his life in the Carolingian Empire are recorded in the annales regni francorum (Royal Frankish Annals), and Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni also mentions the elephant. However, no references of the gift have been found in Abbasid records, nor any mentions of interactions with Charlemagne, possibly because Rashid regarded the Frank as a minor ruler.

Abul-Abbas was brought from Baghdad which was then a part of the Abbasid empire by a Frankish Jew named Isaac, who along with two other emissaries, Lanterfrid and Sigimund, was sent to the caliph on Charlemagne's orders. Being the only surviving member of the group of three, Isaac was sent back with the elephant. The two began the trek back by following the Egyptian coast into Ifriqiya (modern Algeria and Tunisia), ruled by Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab who had bought the land from al-Rashid for 40,000 dinars annually. Possibly with the help of Ibrahim, Isaac set sail with Abul-Abbas from the city of Kairouan and traveled the remaining miles to Europe via the Mediterranean Sea. They landed in Genoa in October 801. The two spent the winter in Vercelli, and in the spring they started the march over the Alps to the Emperor's residence in Aachen, arriving on 1 July, 802. Abul-Abbas was exhibited on various occasions when the court was assembled, and was eventually housed in Augsburg in what is now southern Bavaria.

In 810, when he was in his forties, Abul-Abbas died of pneumonia, probably after swimming in the Rhine. The elephants' bones were conserved at Lippenham[citation needed] until the 18th century.

Primary sources:

Graboïs, "La dynastie des 'rois juifs'," presents a stemma, p. 52. While Graboïs, "La dynastie des 'rois juifs'," 50-52, accepts Zuckerman's dating of the narrative gloss as late twelfth-century,

Cohen, "TheNasi of Narbonne," 53-56, suggests that it was forged when the extant copy was made in Provence in the fifteenth century.

Graboïs, "La dynastie des 'rois juifs'," p. 52 n. 23; Zuckerman, Princedom, 170-71.

Cohen, "The Nasi of Narbonne," 50; Gesta Karoli Magni ad Carcassonam et Narbonam, ed. Friedrich Edward Schneegans (Halle, 1898), 176-80.

^ Annales regni francorum 802:117 "venit Isaac cum elefanto et ceteris muniberus, quae a rege Persarum missa sunt, et Aquisgrani omnia imperatori detulit; nomen elefanti erat Abul Abaz". Harun al Rashid is referred to as either the king of the Persians (ibid 801:116 "rex Persarum") or of the Saracenes (ibid 810:113 "ubi dum aliquot dies moraretur, elefant ille, quem ei Aaron rex Sarracenorum miserat, subita morte periit"

1 Einhard p.70. Einhard refers to the elephant as the only one Harun al Rashid had ("quem tunc solem habetat"), which is regarded an invention. Thorpe, Lewis (1969). Two lives of Charlemagne (7 ed.). Penguin Classics,. p. 184. ISBN 0-14-044213-8.

2 Sherman, Dennis; Salisbury, Joyce. The West in the World, Volume I: To 1715. 1 (3 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 220. ISBN 0-07-331669-5. OCLC 177823124.

3 a b Kistler, John M.; Lair, Richard (2006). War elephants. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 187–188. ISBN 0-275-98761-2. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Y0sqI1fxfnMC.

4 Sypeck, Jeff. (2006). Becoming Charlemagne. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-079706-1

5 Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 6: Annales regni Francorum inde ab a. 741 usque ad a. 829, qui dicuntur Annales Laurissenses maiores et Einhardi. Edited by Friedrich Kurze. Hannover 1895, p. 116 (digital version).

6 Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 6: Annales regni Francorum inde ab a. 741 usque ad a. 829, qui dicuntur Annales Laurissenses maiores et Einhardi. Edited by Friedrich Kurze. Hannover 1895, p. 117 (digital version).

7 Moshe Gil. CUP Archive, 1992 .A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Volume 1. ISBN 0521404371, 9780521404372. http://books.google.fr/books?id=tSM4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA286

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