A Man Needs A Maid

Neil Young

My life is changing in so many ways,
I don't know who to trust anymore.
There's a shadow running through my days,
Like a beggar going from door to door.

I was thinking that maybe I'd get a maid,
Find a place nearby for her to stay.
Just someone to keep my house clean,
Fix my meals and go away.

A maid. A man needs a maid. A maid.

It's hard to make that change
When life and love turns strange and old.

To give a love, you gotta live a love.
To live a love, you gotta be "part of".

When will I see you again?

A while ago somewhere, I don't know when,
I was watching a movie with a friend.
I fell in love with the actress.
She was playing a part that I could understand.

A maid. A man needs a maid. A maid.

When will I see you again?


French Socialist presidential candidate François Hollande attempts to appeal to the simple-minded Niggers of Paris, for their votes, against The Kike Sarkojuif, by playing the Kike-produced song "Niggers in Paris" in an election advertisement.

Niggers In Paris

By Negro Griots Jay Zed and Kanye West

Negro Griots Jay Zed & Kanye West

White Buffoon, Will Ferrell:

We are going to skate to one song.
One song only.

Negro Griot Jay Zed:

So, I ball so hard,
That mother-fuckers want to fine me.
But first,
Niggers have got to find me.

What is a fifty thousand dollar fine
To a mother-fucker like me?
Could you please remind me?

This shit is crazy!
You all do not know,
That that does not shit-phase me.

The New Jersey Nets could go to Zero: Eighty-two.
And I would look at you,
As if to say,
"This shit is gravy."

This shit is weird!
We are not even supposed to be here.
But since we are here.
It is only right that we be fair.

I am liable to go Michael.
Take your pick: Jackson, Tyson, Jordan
(Game 6 against The Utah Jazz in 1998).

I have got a broken clock:
A Rolex that does not tick-tock;
Audemars that are losing time,
Hidden behind all these big diamonds.

I am shocked, too.
I am supposed to be locked up, too.

If you had escaped
What I have escaped,
Then you would be in Paris,
Getting fucked-up, too.

Let us get high on drugs,
At Le Meurice for approximately six days.
With gold bottles, and scolding models,
For spilling Ace of Spades on my sick Air Jordans.

Bitch, behave!
And I just might let you meet Kanye West,
Chicago's Derrick Rose.

I am moving the New Jersey Nets to Brooklyn.

Negro Apprentice Griot, Hook:

I ball so hard
That mother-fuckers want to fine me.

That shit is crazy.
That shit is crazy.
That shit is crazy.
That shit is crazy.
That shit is crazy.
That shit is crazy.

Negro Griot Kanye West:

She said, "Kanye,
"Can we get married at the mall?"
I said, "Look,
"You need to crawl before you ball."

Come and meet me
In the bathroom stall,
And show me why
You deserve to have it all.

That shit is crazy,
Is it not, Jay Zed?
What did she order?
A fish filet?

"Your car is so cold!"
Oh, this old thing?
Act as if you shall never be around
Mother-fuckers like this again.

The Bourgeois girl,
You must grab her hand.
Fuck the old girl!
For she does not want to dance.

Excuse my French,
But I am in France.

I am just saying.

Prince William is not doing it right,
If were to you ask me;
Because if I were he,
I would have married Kate and Ashley.

What is Gucci?
It is my Nigger.

What is Louie Vuitton?
It is my killer.

What are drugs?
It is my dealer.

What is that jacket?
It is Maison Martin Margiela.

Doctors say that I am the most ill,
Because I suffer from realness.

I have got my Niggers in Paris,
And they are going gorillas. Huh!

White Buffoon, Will Ferrell (and Negro Griot Kanye West):

I do not even know what that means.
(No one knows what it means, but it is provocative.)
No it is not, it is gross.
(It gets the people going.)

Negro Griot Jay Zed:

I ball so hard,
That mother-fuckers want to fine me.
I ball so hard,
That mother-fuckers want to fine me.

Negro Griot Kanye West:

You are now watching the throne.

Do not let me get in my zone.
Do not let me get in my zone.
Do not let me get in my zone.

These other Niggers are lying;
Acting as if the summer is not mine.

Negro Griot Jay Zed:

I have got that hot bitch, Beyoncé Knowles, in my home.

Negro Griot Kanye West:

Do you know how many hot bitches I own?

Do not let me in my zone.
Do not let me in my zone.
Do not let me in my zone.
Do not let me in my zone.

The stars are in the building,
Their hands are up to the ceiling,
Making a Masonic sign.
I know that I am about to kill it.

"How do you know?"?
I have got that feeling.

You are now watching the throne.

Do not let me in my zone.
Do not let me in my zone.

Negro Griots Jay Zed and Kanye West:

I am definitely in my zone.

Nigger In Paris

Niggers In Paris

Negros In Paris

Mr Kanye West, regarding "Niggers In Paris" :

"I am where art meets commercial; the sweet spot between the neighbourhood and [Kike] Hollywood. Having a conversation with [Kike] Karl Lagerfeld and Jay Zed within the same hour. When we are in Paris, dressing all crazy at fashion shows, we are listening to Jay Zed -- "Jeezy" in Paris -- that is what it is."

Kike Karl Lagerfeld

Illuminati Have Your IP


Dirty Dancing on The Whipping Post

From Southern Hippie Soul Brother Junkie Gregg Allman's ghost-written autobio, My Cross to Bear.

She smelled like I would imagine a mermaid would smell – I've never smelled it since, and I'll never forget it. It was January 1975, and I was playing a solo show at the Troubadour in Los Angeles. After the show, my buddy Chank ran up to me, going, "Guess who's here?"

"Who?" I asked.

"I want you to just ease over that railing and look to your right."

There she was, man: Cher ["Armenian"?]. I couldn't believe how beautiful she was [GAG! GAG! GAG! PUKE! VOMIT!]. I got my guitar and headed down toward her. Cher showed up with [Kikequeer] David Geffen as her date. I had met Geffen on many occasions before, but I didn't acknowledge him at all – or anyone else, for that matter. I was so rude; I didn't say hello or nothing at all, because I was so blinded by her.

I was walking by, and she was down on the floor looking for something. She looked up and said, "Oh, I lost my earring." Then she said, "Here's my number – call me."

The next day, I asked her out to dinner. I went to her house in a limousine, and when she came out, she said, "Fuck that funeral car," and handed me the keys to her blue Ferrari. We went to a Moroccan restaurant on Sunset, and we sat there, eating with our hands with the sitars playing. She didn't have shit to say to me, and I didn't have shit to say to her. [Such romance!] What's the topic of conversation? It certainly ain't singing.

I said to her, "I've got a friend who lives up in the Hills, and his wife is Judy ["Sock It To Me"] Carne [married to Burt Reynolds and then to a kike producer]." Cher knew Judy, who used to be on Laugh-In, from years before, but she didn't realize that Judy was into heroin. We got up to Judy's house, and I had just a little taste of doojee. I nodded out in the bathroom for 20 minutes or so, while Cher was out in the living room with Judy, who's also nodding out. I came out of there and asked her, "OK, toots, what else would you like to do?"

"I want to get the fuck out of here as fast as I can," she said.

I called her the next day and said, "Wait, before you say anything – that was possibly the worst fucking date in the history of mankind. We might be ready for the Guinness Book of World Records." She agreed with me, so I said, "Well, listen, seeing how it was so bad, why don't we try it again, because it can only go better this time?"

We went dancing. I don't know how to dance, but I got drunk enough to where I did. I danced my ass off. This is when disco was just taking off, so we did some dirty dancing. She had one drink, while I had my 21, of course. When we got back to her place, she took me out to her rose garden, and all the roses were just starting to bloom...

Cher Needles

KIKE Ryder Cher Hoskins Ricci Benjamin Rank Mother Mermaids

KIKE Writah KIKE Directah KIKE Prawdoosahs KIKE Actahs KIKE Sawundtrack & KIKE Blasphemy


Two arrested in brutal hammer beating in Seminole

Orlando Sentinel, 2012.04.02

Julius Bender Yahaziel Israel

Julius Bender, left, Yahaziel Israel, Seminole County Jail

A tip to Crimeline has led to the arrests of two men in a brutal beating that occurred a week ago in the Midway community east of Sanford.

Julius Ricardo Bender, 18, and Yahaziel Isaac Israel, 19, face charges of attempted first-degree murder, burglary with assault or battery and armed burglary.

The victim, a 50-year-old Winter Springs man whose name has not been released, is on life-support at Orlando Regional Medical Center.

Deputies were called to the area of Lincoln Street and Beardall Avenue about 6:30 p.m. March 26 to investigate a report of a man being beaten, Seminole County Sheriff's spokeswoman Heather Smith said.

They found the victim in the woods on the north side of Lincoln Street.

According to arrest affidavits:

A witness told deputies he heard someone screaming for help and saw two men pull the victim from his vehicle. He said he watched as one man held the victim and the other beat him in the head with a hammer.

After they dragged the victim into the woods, the men drove away in his sport utility vehicle, which was later found abandoned about a half-mile away on Garbo Jack Lane.

Investigators got a break in the case Thursday, when a tip to Crimeline named Bender and gave the street name of the second suspect.

On Friday, investigators learned Israel's fingerprints had been found both inside and outside of the victim's vehicle.

The witness was shown photo lineups and picked out Bender and Israel as the men he saw beating the victim. He said Bender was the man wielding the hammer.



No, it's not the name of a band.

St John Chrysostom, from Homily VII (re Philippians 2:5-11):


"Art thou strong, and proud thereat? Thou shouldest rather be humble on this account. Why art thou proud for a thing of nought? For even a lion is bolder than thou, a wild boar is stronger, and thou art not even as a fly in comparison with them. Robbers too, and violaters of tombs, and gladiators, and even thine own slaves, and those perchance who are more stupid still, are stronger than thou. Is this then a fit subject for praise? Art thou proud of such a matter? Bury thyself for shame!

"But art thou handsome and beautiful? This is the boast of crows! Thou art not fairer than the peacock, as regards either its color or its plumage; the bird beats thee in plumage, it far surpasseth thee in its feathers and in its color. The swan too is passing fair, and many other birds, with whom if thou art compared thou wilt see that thou art nought. Often too worthless boys, and unmarried girls, and harlots, and effeminate men have had this boast; is this then a cause for haughtiness?

"But art thou rich? Whence so? what hast thou? Gold, silver, precious stones! This is the boast of robbers also, of man-slayers, of those who work in the mines. That which is the labor of criminals becomes to thee a boast!

"But dost thou adorn and deck thyself out? Well, we may see horses also decked out, and among the Persians camels too, and as for men, all those who are about the stage. Art thou not ashamed to boast thyself of these things, if unreasoning animals, and slaves, and man-slayers, and effeminates, and robbers, and violaters of tombs, share with thee?


"[Jesus Christ:] 'Behold the birds of the heaven, that they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns.' [Matthew 6:26] And surely, He means, God has not created the irrational animals superior to ourselves.

"There are things wherein the irrational animals have no participation with us. And of what sort are these?

"Piety, and a life based on virtue. Here thou canst never speak of fornicators, nor of effeminate persons, nor of murderers, for from them we have been severed.

"And what then is this which is found here? We know God, His Providence we acknowledge, and are embued with true philosophy concerning immortality. Here let the irrational animals give place. They cannot contend with us in these points.

"We live in self-command. Here the irrational animals have nothing in common with us. For, while coming behind all of them, we exercise dominion over them; for herein lies the superiority of our dominion, that, while coming behind them, we yet reign over them: that thou mightest be instructed that the cause of these things is, not thyself, but God who made thee, and gave thee reason. We set nets and toils for them, we drive them in, and they are at our mercy.

"Self-command, a compliant temper, mildness, contempt of money, are prerogatives of our race; but since thou who art one of those blinded by presumption hast none of these, thou doest well in entertaining notions either above the level of mankind, or beneath the very irrational creatures.


"When in the things of the body thou wouldest have the advantage, but hast no advantage in the things that concern the soul, how art thou aught else than inferior to the irrational animals?

"For bring forward one of the vicious and unthinking, of those that are living in excess and to self. The horse surpasses him in warlike spirit, the boar in strength, the hare in swiftness, the peacock in grace, the swan in fineness of voice, the elephant in size, the eagle in keenness of sight, all birds in wealth. Whence then dost thou derive thy title to rule the irrational creatures? from reason? But thou hast it not? For whosoever ceases to make a due use of it, is again inferior to them; for when though possessing reason he is more irrational than they, it had been better if he had never from the first become capable of exercising reason.

"For it is not the same thing after having received dominion to betray the trust, as to let pass the season to receive it. That sovereign, who is below the level of his guards, had better never have had on the purple. And it is the very self-same thing in this case.

"Knowing then that without virtue we are inferior to the very irrational animals, let us exercise ourselves therein, that we may become men, yea rather angels, and that we may enjoy the promised blessings, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ."

£ : Ballad of the Goodly Fere

Ballad of the Goodly Fere

Ezra Pound

SIMON Zelotes speaketh it somewhile after the Crucifixion

Ha' we lost the goodliest fere o' all
For the priests and the gallows tree?
Aye lover he was of brawny men,
O' ships and the open sea.

When they came wi' a host to take Our Man
His smile was good to see,
"First let these go!" quo' our Goodly Fere,
"Or I'll see ye damned," says he.

Aye he sent us out through the crossed high spears
And the scorn of his laugh rang free,
"Why took ye not me when I walked about
Alone in the town?" says he.

Oh we drunk his "Hale" in the good red wine
When we last made company,
No capon priest was the Goodly Fere
But a man o' men was he.

I ha' seen him drive a hundred men
Wi' a bundle o' cords swung free,
That they took the high and holy house
For their pawn and treasury.

They'ss no' get him a' in a book I think
Though they write it cunningly;
No mouse of the scrolls was the Goodly Fere
But aye loved the open sea.

If they think they ha' snared our Goodly Fere
They are fools to the last degree.
"I'll go to the feast," quo' our Goodly Fere,
"Though I go to the gallows tree."

"Ye ha' seen me heal the lame and blind,
And wake the dead," says he,
"Ye shall see one thing to master all:
'Tis how a brave man dies on the tree."

A son of God was the Goodly Fere
That bade us his brothers be.
I ha' seen him cow a thousand men.
I have seen him upon the tree.

He cried no cry when they drave the nails
And the blood gushed hot and free,
The hounds of the crimson sky gave tongue
But never a cry cried he.

I ha' seen him cow a thousand men
On the hills o' Galilee,
They whined as he walked out calm between,
Wi' his eyes like the grey o' the sea,

Like the sea that brooks no voyaging
With the winds unleashed and free,
Like the sea he cowed at Genseret
Wi' twey words spoke' suddently.

A master of men was the Goodly Fere,
A mate of the wind and sea,
If they think they ha' slain our Goodly Fere
They are fools eternally.

I ha' seen him eat o' the honey-comb
Sin' they nailed him to the tree.



By Kikess Irma Kurtz

Kirkus Review, 1978.02.20 :

The nameless narrator-heroine of this thin, obvious sermonette is a hip young Jewish journalist who's been worried lately about reestablishing contact with her authentic self. Therefore, she has decided to take twice-yearly trips from her London base back to the States, to visit her parents in New Jersey; her dentist father is a fearful, wary Jew, waiting for another Holocaust to come along and take care of American Jews it missed the first time around. Her father's anxiety gives the journalist an idea for a story--the Ku Klux Klan--so she travels down to Natchez, Miss., to interview the Grand Dragon [= "David Duke"]. Like her, the Grand Dragon remains nameless, but he's nice, blond, intelligent, attractive, and, to her surprise, she's willing to have a one-night relationship with him. Though it's a struggle, she keeps the fact of her Jewishness a secret. Next day, at a Klan rally, anti-Semitic spew from the mouth of the Grand Dragon riles up our heroine's guilt and rage. Yelling "I'm a Jew!" she stumbles from the rally, having rediscovered her roots. [And decides to go to Kikestan-in-Palestine.] One-dimensional characters, one-note sociology--hardly more than a padded anecdote with a message.


"Inside the goyim, every goy, is a Jew killer!"

"Dangerous people...they hated Jews. They should all be dead! They should all be lined up against a wall and shot! They should all...."

"Some of these people had never met a Jew or seen one, but anti-Semitism brooded inside them anyway, carried on the tip of the gentile sperm and born in their offspring."

"The Grand Dragon turned his head toward me again, and I knew there was no Jewish blood in him; no dark patriarch had broken his golden line. He was straight from the Norse God of Mischief."

"I looked at him, bristling with sincerity, brimming with it, shining with it, and I could only think again, He's dangerous, because I knew - I had known from his first words - that I was bound to be defeated in argument with this Klansman as he had probably defeated all his interviewers."

"He's honest I thought, and then I felt sorry for him, for honesty in my opinion is a vice of children, and a vice my kind never had. We were old liars."

"His blond hair fell straight across his forehead, and he pushed it back wit a gesture of impatience and vanity. Whatever his origin - Teutonic, I reckoned, or Viking - the Grand Dragon's virtuous health and ruthless good looks, were the being delivered by nature only to the American-born."

"I realized then that they did exist, the golden goys, willing to die for a country that to me was a strange place."

"I knew a man of that golden American blend could not be for my breed."

"One morning my father took me to one side and asked me how I could endure being touched by a Christian."

"I want the Grand Dragon to grow old, I thought, and I enjoyed the picture of him disappointed, feeling his hold on life loosen as each arthtiric finger curled back into his palm. I wanted him to grow old alone in prison, in one locked cell, a fortress patrolled by dumb strangers until his body was ugly and empty and lay in six feet of prison yard."

"At last I understood my father's fear at coming out into the high grass of the Diaspora, where tigers lay in wait for Kosher meat."

Hige sceal þe heardra...

From "The Battle of Maldon", circa A.D. 1000

Hige sceal þe heardra heorte þe cenre
mod sceal þe mare þe ure mægen lytlað

Thought must be the harder, heart the keener
mind must be the greater, as our strength lessens.

(Trans. R. Lennon)




(Cassius Dio, Roman History, from Volume 9 of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 9 volumes, Greek texts and facing English translation: Harvard University Press, 1914 thru 1927. Translation by Earnest Cary.)

Roman Emperor Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus


A.D. 193, "The Year of the Five Emperors" :

Pertinax was an excellent and upright man, but he ruled only a very short time, and was then put out of the way by the soldiers. While the fate of Commodus still remained a secret, the followers of Laetus and Eclectus came to him and informed him what had been done; for because of his excellence and his rank they were glad to choose him. And he, after seeing them and hearing their story, sent his most trustworthy companion to view the body of Commodus. When this man had confirmed the report of the deed, Pertinax than betook himself secretly to the camp. At first his arrival caused the soldiers alarm; but thanks to the presence of Laetus' adherents and to the offers that Pertinax made (he promised to give them twelve thousand sesterces apiece), he won them over. Indeed, they would have remained perfectly quiet, had he not in closing his speech made some such remark as this: "There are many distressing circumstances, fellow-soldiers, in the present situation; but the rest with your help shall be set right again." On hearing this, they suspected that all the privileges granted them by Commodus in violation of precedent would be abolished, and they were displeased; nevertheless, they remained quiet, concealing their anger. On leaving the camp, he came to the senate-house while it was still night, and after greeting us, so far as it was possible for anyone to approach him in the midst of such a jostling throng, he said off-hand: "I have been named emperor by the soldiers; however, I do not want the office and shall resign it at once, this very day, because of my age and feeble health, and because of the distressing state of affairs." This was no sooner said than we gave him our genuine approbation and chose him in very truth; for he was not only most noble in spirit but also strong in body, except that he suffered from a slight impediment in walking by reason of his feet.

In this way Pertinax was declared emperor and Commodus a public enemy, after both the senate and the populace had joined in shouting many bitter words against the latter. They wanted to drag off his body and tear it from limb to limb, as they did do, in fact, with his statues; but when Pertinax informed them that the corpse had already been interred, they spared his remains, but glutted their rage against him in other ways, calling him all sorts of names. ºFor no one called him Commodus or emperor; instead they referred to him as an accursed wretch and a tyrant, adding in jest such terms as "the gladiator," "the charioteer," "the left-handed," "the ruptured." To those senators on whom the fear of Commodus had rested most heavily, the crowd called out: "Huzza! Huzza! You are saved; you have won." Indeed, all the shouts that they had been accustomed to utter with a kind of rhythmic swing in the amphitheatre, by way of paying court to Commodus, they now chanted with certain changes that made them utterly ridiculous. For now that they had got rid of one ruler and as yet had nothing to fear from his successor, they were making the most of their freedom in the interval, and were gaining a reputation for boldness of speech in the security of the moment. For they were not satisfied merely to be relieved of further terror, but in their confidence they also wished to indulge in wanton insolence.

Pertinax was a Ligurian from Alba Pompeia; his father was not of noble birth, and he himself had received just enough education to enable him to gain a livelihood. This had brought him into association with Claudius Pompeianus, through whose influence he had become a tribune in the cavalry, and had reached such a height that he now was actually the emperor of his former patron. And it was at this time, under Pertinax, that I myself saw Pompeianus present in the senate for both the first and the last time. For he had been wont to spend most of his time in the country because of Commodus, and very rarely came down to the City, alleging his age and an ailment of the eyes as an excuse; and he had never before, when I was present, entered the senate. Furthermore, after the reign of Pertinax he was once more ailing; whereas under this emperor he had both his sight and good health, and used to take part in the deliberations of the senate. Pertinax showed him great honour in every way; and, in particular, he made him sit beside him on his bench in the senate. He also granted the same privilege to Acilius Glabrio; for this man, too, could both hear and see at that period. In addition to showing unusual honour to these men, he also conducted himself in a very democratic manner toward us senators; for he was easy of access, listened readily to anyone's requests, and in answer gave his own opinion in a kindly way. Again, he used to give us banquets marked by moderation; and whenever he did not do this, he would send round various dishes, even the most inexpensive, to different ones of us. For this the wealthy and vainglorious made great sport of him; but the rest of us, who valued virtue above licentiousness, approved his course.

So different was the opinion of everybody regarding Pertinax as contrasted with Commodus, that when people heard what had happened, they suspected that the story of his assassination had been put forth by Commodus to test them, and in consequence many of the governors in the provinces imprisoned the men who brought the news. It was not that they did not wish the report to be true, but that they were more afraid of appearing to have desired the death of Commodus than they were of failing to attach themselves to Pertinax. For of the latter no one, even if he committed an error so serious as this, was afraid, but of the former, every one, even if innocent of wrong-doing.

While Pertinax was still in Britain, after that great revolt which he quelled, and was being accounted worthy of praise on all sides, a horse named Pertinax won a race at Rome. It belonged to the Greens and was favoured by Commodus. So, when its partisans raised a great shout, crying, "It is Pertinax!" the others, their opponents, in disgust at Commodus, likewise prayed,— with reference to the man rather than to the horse,— "Would that it were so!" Later, when this same horse had left the race-track because of age and was in the country, it was sent for by Commodus, who brought it into the Circus after gilding its hoofs and adorning its back with a gilded skin. And the people, suddenly seeing it, cried out again: "It is Pertinax!" This very expression was doubtless an omen in itself, occurring, as it did, at the last horse-race that year; and immediately afterwards the throne passed to Pertinax. Similar views were expressed also concerning the incident of the club; for Commodus when about to contend on the final day had given it to Pertinax.

It was in this manner that Pertinax came into power. And he obtained all the customary titles pertaining to that office, and also a new one to indicate his wish to be democratic; for he was styled Chief of the Senate in accordance with the ancient practice. He at once reduced to order everything that had previously been irregular and confused; for he showed not only humaneness and integrity in the imperial administrations, but also the most economical management and the most careful consideration for the public welfare. Besides doing everything else that a good emperor should do, he removed the stigma attaching to those who had been unjustly put to death, and he furthermore took oath that he would never sanction such a penalty. And immediately some bewailed their relatives and others their friends with mingled tears and joy, even these exhibitions of emotion not having been permitted formerly. After this they exhumed the bodies, some of which were found intact and some in fragments, according to the manner of death or the lapse of time in each case; and after duly arranging them, they deposited them in their ancestral tombs.

At this time, then, there was such a dearth of funds in the imperial treasury that only a million sesterces could be found. Pertinax therefore raised money as best he could from the statues, the arms, the horses, the furniture, and the favourites of Commodus, and gave to the Pretorians all that he had promised and to the populace a hundred denarii per man. Indeed, all the articles that Commodus had collected, whether as luxuries or for gladiatorial combats or for chariot-driving, were exposed in the auction-room, primarily, of course, to be sold, yet with the further purpose of showing up the late emperor's deeds and practices, and also of finding out who their purchasers would be.

Laetus kept speaking well of Pertinax and abusing Commodus. For instance, he sent after some barbarians who had received a large sum of gold from Commodus for making peace (they were still on their way), and demanded its return, telling them to inform their people at home that Pertinax was ruler; for the barbarians knew his name only too well because of the reverses they had suffered when he made a campaign against them with Marcus. And here is another similar act of his intended to discredit Commodus. Discovering that some filthy clowns and buffoons, disgusting in appearance and with still more disgusting nicknames and habits, had been made extremely wealthy by Commodus on account of their wantonness and licentiousness, he made public their nicknames and the sums they had received. The former caused laughter and the latter wrath and grief, for there were some of them that possessed amounts such as Commodus had actually slain many senators to obtain. Laetus, however, did not remain permanently loyal to Pertinax, or, I might better say, he was never faithful even for a moment; for when he did not get what he wanted, he proceeded to incite the soldiers against him, as will be related.

Pertinax appointed as prefect of the city his father-in‑law, Flavius Sulpicianus, a man in every way worthy of the office. Yet he was unwilling to make his wife Augusta or his son Caesar, though we granted him permission. In fact, he emphatically rejected both proposals, either because he had not yet firmly rooted his own power or because he did not choose either to let his unchaste consort sully the name of Augusta or to permit his son, who was still a boy, to be spoiled by the glamour and the prospects involved in the title of Caesar before he had received his education. Indeed, he would not even bring him up in the palace, but on the very first day he set aside everything that had belonged to himself previously and divided it between his children (he had also a daughter), and ordered that they should live with their grandfather; there he visited them occasionally, but rather as their father than as emperor.

Since, now, neither the soldiers were allowed to plunder any longer nor the imperial freedmen to indulge in lewdness, they both hated him bitterly. The freedmen, for their part, attempted no revolt, being unarmed; but the Pretorian troops and Laetus formed a plot against him. At first they selected Falco, the consul, for emperor, because he was distinguished for both his family and wealth, and they were planning to bring him to the camp while Pertinax was at the coast investigating the corn supply.º But the emperor, learning of the plan, returned in haste to the city, and coming before the senate, said: "You should not be left in ignorance of the fact, Fathers, that although I found on hand only a million sesterces, yet I have distributed as much to the soldiers as did Marcus and Lucius, to whom were left twenty-seven hundred millions. It is these wonderful freedmen who are to blame for this shortage of funds." Now Pertinax was not telling the truth when he claimed to have bestowed upon the soldiers as much as Lucius and Marcus, inasmuch as they had given them about twenty thousand, and he only about twelve thousand, sesterces apiece; and the soldiers and the freedmen who were present in the senate in very large numbers became highly indignant and muttered ominously. But as we were about to condemn Falco and were already declaring him a public enemy, Pertinax rose and exclaimed: "Heaven forbid that any senator should be put to death while I am ruler, even for just cause." Thus was Falco's life spared, and thenceforth he lived in the country, preserving a cautious and respectful demeanour.

But Laetus, seizing upon the case of Falco as a handle, proceeded to put out of the way many of the soldiers, pretending that it was by the emperor's orders. The others, when they became aware of it, feared that they, too, should perish, and made a disturbance; but two hundred, bolder than their fellows, actually invaded the palace with drawn swords. Pertinax had no warning of their approach until they were already up on the hill; then his wife rushed in and informed him of what had happened. On learning this he behaved in a manner that one will call noble, or senseless, or whatever one pleases. For, even though he could in all probability have killed his assailants,— as he had in the night-guard and the cavalry at hand to protect him, and as there were also many people in the palace at the time,— or might at least have concealed himself and made his escape to some place or other, by closing the gates of the palace and the other intervening doors, he nevertheless adopted neither of these courses. Instead, hoping to overawe them by his appearance and to win them over by his words, he went to meet the approaching band, which was already inside the palace; for no one of their fellow-soldiers had barred the way, and the porters and other freedmen, so far from making any door fast, had actually opened absolutely all the entrances. The soldiers on seeing him were at first abashed, all save one, and kept their eyes on the ground, and they thrust their swords back into their scabbards; but that one man leaped forward, exclaiming, "The soldiers have sent you this sword," and forthwith fell upon him and wounded him. Than his comrades no longer held back, but struck down their emperor together with Eclectus. The latter alone had not deserted him, but defended him as best he could, even wounding several of his assailants; hence I, who felt that even before that he had shown himself an excellent man, now thoroughly admired him. The soldiers cut off the head of Pertinax and fastened it on a spear, glorying in the deed. Thus did Pertinax, who undertook to restore everything in a moment, come to his end. He failed to comprehend, though a man of wide practical experience, that one cannot with safety reform everything at once, and that the restoration of a state, in particular, requires both time and wisdom. He had lived sixty-seven years, lacking four months and three days, and had reigned eighty-seven days.

When the fate of Pertinax was noised about, some ran to their homes and others to those of the soldiers, all taking thought for their own safety. But Sulpicianus, who had been sent by Pertinax to the camp to set matters in order there, remained on the spot, and intrigued to get himself appointed emperor. Meanwhile Didius Julianus, at once an insatiate money-getter and a wanton spendthrift, who was always eager for revolution and hence had been exiled by Commodus to his native city of Mediolanum, now, when he heard of the death of Pertinax, hastily made his way to the camp, and, standing at the gates of the enclosure, made bids to the soldiers for the rule over the Romans. Then ensued a most disgraceful business and one unworthy of Rome. For, just as if it had been in some market or auction-room, both the City and its entire empire were auctioned off. The sellers were the ones who had slain their emperor, and the would-be buyers were Sulpicianus and Julianus, who vied to outbid each other, one from the inside, the other from the outside. They gradually raised their bids up to twenty thousand sesterces per soldier. Some of the soldiers would carry word to Julianus, "Sulpicianus offers so much; how much more do you make it?" And to Sulpicianus in turn, "Julianus promises so much; how much do you raise him?" Sulpicianus would have won the day, being inside and being prefect of the city and also the first to name the figure twenty thousand, had not Julianus raised his bid no longer by a small amount but by five thousand at one time, both shouting it in a loud voice and also indicating the amount with his fingers. So the soldiers, captivated by this excessive bid and at the same time fearing that Sulpicianus might avenge Pertinax (an idea that Julianus put into their heads), received Julianus inside and declared him emperor.

So toward evening the new ruler hastened to the Forum and the senate-house. He was escorted by a vast number of Pretorians with numerous standards, as if prepared for action, his object being to intimidate both us and the populace at the outset and thereby to secure our allegiance; and the soldiers were calling him "Commodus" and extolling him in various other ways. As for us senators, when the news was brought to each of us individually and we ascertained the truth, we were possessed by fear of Julianus and the soldiers, especially all of us who had done any favours for Pertinax or anything to displease Julianus. I was one of these, for I had received various honours from Pertinax, including the praetorship, and when acting as advocate for others at trials I had frequently proved Julianus to be guilty of many offences. Nevertheless, we made our appearance, partly for this very reason, since it did not seem to us to be safe to remain at home, for fear such a course might in itself arouse suspicion. So when bath and dinner were over we pushed our way through the soldiers, entered the senate-house, and heard him deliver a speech that was quite worthy of him, in the course of which he said: "I see that you need a ruler, and I myself am best fitted of any to rule you. I should mention all the advantages I can offer, if you were not already familiar with them and had not already had experience of me. Consequently I have not even asked to be attended here by many soldiers, but have come to you alone, in order that you may ratify what has been given to me by them." "I am here alone" is what he said, though he had actually surrounded the entire senate-house outside with heavy-armed troops and had a large number of soldiers in the chamber itself; moreover he reminded us of our knowledge of the kind of man he was, in consequence of which we both feared and hated him.

Having thus secured confirmation of the imperial power by decrees of the senate also, he proceeded up to the palace. And finding the dinner that had been prepared for Pertinax, he made great fun of it, and sending out to every place which by any means whatever something expensive could be procured at that time of night, he proceeded to gorge himself, while the corpse was still lying in the building, and then to play at dice. Among others that he took along with him was Pylades, the pantomime. The next day we went up to pay our respects to him, moulding our faces, so to speak, and posturing, so that our grief should not be detected. The populace, however, went about openly with sullen looks, spoke its mind as much as it pleased, and was getting ready to do anything it could. Finally, when he came to the senate-house and was about to sacrifice to Janus before the entrance, all fell to shouting, as if by preconcerted arrangement, calling him stealer of the empire and parricide. Then, when he affected not to be angry and promised them some money, they became indignant at the implication that they could be bribed, and all cried out together: "We don't want it! We won't take it!" And the surrounding buildings echoed back their shout in a way to make one shudder. When Julianus heard their reply, he could endure it no longer, but ordered those standing nearest to be slain. That exasperated the populace all the more, and it did not cease expressing its regret for Pertinax and abusing Julianus, invoking the gods and cursing the soldiers; but though many were wounded and killed in many parts of the city, they continued to resist. Finally they seized arms and rushed together into the Circus, and there spent the night and the following day without food or drink, shouting and calling upon the remainder of the soldiers, especially Pescennius Niger and his followers in Syria, to come to their aid. Later, exhausted by their shouting, by their fasting, and by their loss of sleep, they separated and kept quiet, awaiting the hoped-for deliverance from abroad.

"I do not assist the populace, for it has not called upon me."

After seizing the power in this manner Julianus managed affairs in a servile fashion, paying court to the senate as well as to all the men of any influence now he would make promises, now bestow favours, and he laughed and jested with anybody and everybody. He was constantly resorting to the theatres, and kept getting up banquets; in fine, he left nothing undone to court our favour. Yet he did not only play the part well, but incurred suspicion as indulging in servile flattery. For every act that goes beyond propriety, even though it seems to some to be gracious, is regarded by men of sense as trickery.

When the senate voted him a statue of gold, he declined to accept it, saying: "Give me a bronze one, so that it may last; for I observe that the gold and silver statues of the emperors that ruled before me have been destroyed, whereas the bronze ones remain." In this he was mistaken, for it is virtue that preserves the memory of rulers; and in fact the bronze statue that was granted him was destroyed after his own overthrow.

These were the occurrences in Rome. I shall now speak of what happened outside, and of the various rebellions. For three men at this time, each commanding three legions of citizens and many foreigners besides, attempted to secure the control of affairs — Severus, Niger and Albinus. The last-named was governor of Britain, Severus of Pannonia, and Niger of Syria. These, then, were the three men portended by the three stars that suddenly came to view surrounding the sun when Julianus in our presence was offering the Sacrifices of Entrance in front of the senate-house. These stars were so very distinct that the soldiers kept continually looking at them and pointing them out to one another, while declaring that some dreadful fate would befall the emperor. As for us, however much we hoped and prayed that it might so prove, yet the fear of the moment would not permit us to gaze up at them except by furtive glances. So much for this incident, which I give from my own knowledge. Now of the three leaders that I have mentioned, Severus was the shrewdest; he understood in advance that after Julianus had been deposed the three would clash and fight against one another for the empire, and he therefore determined to win over the rival who was nearest to him. So he sent a letter by one of his trusted friends to Albinus, appointing him Caesar; as for Niger, who was proud of having been summoned by the populace, he had no hopes of him. Albinus, accordingly, in the belief that he was to share the rule with Severus, remained where he was; and Severus, after winning over everything in Europe except Byzantium, was hastening against Rome. He did not venture outside the protection of arms, but having selected his six hundred most valiant men, he passed his time day and night in their midst; these did not once put off their breastplates until they were in Rome.

This man, when governor of Africa, had been tried and condemned by Pertinax for corruption, avarice, and licentiousness, but was at this time appointed consul? among the first by that same man, as a favour to Severus.

Julianus, on learning of this, caused the senate to declare Severus a public enemy, and proceeded to prepare against him. In the suburbs he constructed a rampart, provided with gates, so that he might take up a position out there and fight from that base. The city during these days became nothing more nor less than a camp, in the enemy's country, as it were. Great was the turmoil on the part of the various forces that were encamped and drilling,— men, horses, and elephants,— and great, also, was the fear inspired in the rest of the population by the armed troops, because the latter hated them. Yet at times we would be overcome by laughter; for the Pretorians did nothing worthy of their name and of their promise, for they had learned to live delicately; the sailors summoned from the fleet stationed at Misenum did not even know how to drill; and the elephants found their towers burdensome and would not even carry their drivers any longer, but threw them off, too. But what caused us the greatest amusement was his fortifying of the palace with latticed gates and strong doors. For, inasmuch as it seemed probable that the soldiers would never have slain Pertinax so easily if the doors had been securely locked, Julianus believed that in case of defeat he would be able to shut himself up there and survive.

He accordingly put to death both Laetus and Marcia, so that all who conspired against Commodus perished; for later Severus gave Narcissus to the wild beasts, causing it to be expressly proclaimed that he was the man who had strangled Commodus. Julianus also killed many boys as a magic rite, believing that he could avert some future misfortunes if he learned of them beforehand. And he kept sending men against Severus to slay him by treachery. But Severus presently reached Italy, and took possession of Ravenna without striking a blow. Moreover, the men whom Julianus kept sending against him, either to persuade him to turn back or to block his advance, were going over the Severus' side; and the Pretorians, in whom Julianus reposed most confidence, were becoming worn out by their constant toil and were becoming greatly alarmed at the report of Severus' near approach. At this juncture Julianus called us together and bade us appoint Severus to share his throne. But the soldiers, convinced by letters of Severus that if they surrendered the slayers of Pertinax and themselves kept the peace they would suffer no harm, arrested the men who had killed Pertinax, and announced this fact to Silius Messalla, who was then consul. The latter assembled us in the Athenaeum, so named from the educational activities that were carried on in it, and informed us of the soldiers' action. We thereupon sentenced Julianus to death, named Severus emperor, and bestowed divine honours on Pertinax. And so it came about that Julianus was slain as he was reclining in the palace itself; his only words were, "But what evil have I done? Whom have I killed?" He had lived sixty years, four months, and the same number of days, out of which he had reigned sixty-six days.

Roman Emperor Marcus Didius Severus Julianus Augustus



Titus Livius, from Ab urbe condita libri, circa 25 B.C.

Territi etiam super tantas clades cum ceteris prodigiis, tum quod duae Vestales eo anno, Opimia atque Floronia, stupri compertae et altera sub terra, uti mos est, ad portam Collinam necata fuerat, altera sibimet ipsa mortem consciuerat; L. Cantilius scriba pontificius, quos nunc minores pontifices appellant, qui cum Floronia stuprum fecerat, a pontifice maximo eo usque uirgis in comitio caesus erat ut inter uerbera exspiraret. hoc nefas cum inter tot, ut fit, clades in prodigium uersum esset, decemuiri libros adire iussi sunt et Q. Fabius Pictor Delphos ad oraculum missus est sciscitatum quibus precibus suppliciisque deos possent placare et quaenam futura finis tantis cladibus foret. Interim ex fatalibus libris sacrificia aliquot extraordinaria facta, inter quae Gallus et Galla, Graecus et Graeca in foro bouario sub terram uiui demissi sunt in locum saxo consaeptum, iam ante hostiis humanis, minime Romano sacro, imbutum.

[In 216 B.C.] Two Vestal virgins, Opimia and Floronia, were found guilty of unchastity. One was buried alive, as is the custom, at the Colline Gate, and the other committed suicide. L. Cantilius, one of the pontifical secretaries -- now called 'minor pontiffs' -- who had been guilty with Floronia, was scourged in the Comitium by the Pontifex Maximus so severely that he died from it. This act of wickedness, coming as it did amongst so many calamities, was, as often happens, regarded as a portent, and the decemvirs were ordered to consult the Sacred Books. Q. Fabius Pictor was sent to consult the oracle of Delphi as to what forms of prayer and supplication they were to use to propitiate the gods, and what was to be the end of all these terrible disasters. Meanwhile, in obedience to the Books of Destiny, some strange and unusual sacrifices were made, human sacrifices amongst them. A Gaulish man and a Gaulish woman and a Greek man and a Greek woman were buried alive under the Forum Boarium. They were lowered into a stone vault, which had on a previous occasion also been polluted by human victims, a practice most repulsive to Roman feelings.


Ageing Australia turns its back on the answer to its problems

Despite incentives to reproduce, Australians are getting older. They should embrace young immigrants, not lock them up

Comments (138)

Saman Shad, guardian.co.uk, 28 April 2012

It is predicted that by 2050 there will only be 2.5 working Australians for every citizen over 65 – in the 1970s that figure was 7.5.

Not many people would support a 10-year-old being put in prison without ever having committed a crime. In Australia, however, most do not question why a young child has been detained for over a year, for no reason except that she happens to be an asylum seeker who arrived on their shores.

This Vietnamese girl, along with 26 other minors, is currently being detained in the Darwin Airport Lodge – a place where children have been prohibited from using crayons and colouring pens inside their own rooms. With nowhere left to turn she handed a letter to the community officer going to visit her, pleading for help. She and the other children are living in conditions that she describes as "extremely depressing". She says they are "suffering", their lives are "very sad and hopeless" and that they "lack any sense of a future". She's been in detention for more than a year now, kept under lock and key by her legal guardian, Australia's immigration minister, Chris Bowen. She doesn't know when she will be released or what her future will hold.

The response from the government has been typically mute. There were the usual statements from the Green party in response, but nothing from the governing Labor party or the opposing Liberals. That's because this girl is not an unusual case. As of 31 March 2012 there were 1,019 children held in detention in Australia. 428 of those in "secure locked facilities". Their fate seemingly worse than those of prisoners who at least have an end date for the time they have to serve.

The number of asylum seekers coming to Australia is relatively small. The EU takes in as many asylum seekers in two weeks as Australia does all year. Australia is also bucking the worldwide trend of increasing numbers of people seeking asylum on foreign shores. While there was a 20% increase from 2010 to 2011 of people seeking asylum in 44 industrialised nations, Australia saw a 9% decrease. Despite this, both major parties in the country can't help but stir up hysteria about Australia's borders being "flooded" by asylum seekers. The brutal treatment of these people is a vote winner and Australian politicians continue to fall over themselves to demonstrate how they will strengthen what are already some of the harshest immigration laws in the world.

Policymakers in Australia, however, have to balance the public's desire for continued tightening of immigration controls versus maintaining a steady population growth against a background of an ageing population. It is predicted that by 2036 more Australians will be retiring from the labour force than joining it. By 2050 there will only be 2.5 working Australians for every citizen over 65 – in the 1970s that figure was 7.5. The main solution policymakers seem to have come up with is to throw money at the problem.

In 2002, perhaps in response to Australia's Total Fertility Rate (TFR) reaching an all time low, the government introduced a baby bonus scheme. For every child born or adopted by a citizen or permanent resident of Australia the government will award them $5,000. Australia's TFR has risen since then, yet it still remains below replacement levels of 2.1 births per woman. If the baby bonus wasn't enough, the government is now introducing a jobs bonus, where employers will be offered $1,000 for each employee they hire and retain over 50 years of age. These seem like desperate measures from a government running out of ideas.

For the 10-year-old holed up in detention, the government really does have no idea. The so-called "lucky country" she wants to call home is turning its back on her. The response could and should be so different. She could have been treated with compassion and understanding, she could have been integrated into society and allowed to reach her fullest potential. She could be an active, contributing member of the future workforce, tasked with supporting the oldies who didn't want to have anything to do with her when she first arrived into the country. It is not too late yet, all these things can still happen. But based on the government's response to cases like hers she can be forgiven for not feeling too optimistic. About 50% of all asylum applications are turned down.

"The liberty of a child is a fundamental human right" – this sentiment was outlined by the campaign to end the immigration detention of children, launched at the United Nations human rights council last month. The same organisation has started a global petition to end this policy. I hope Australia will act, open its eyes, its ears and most importantly its heart to these vulnerable children with nowhere left to turn.

Some Comments:

  • 2011 Australian Government Report Quote "Of the migration streams represented in this survey, Humanitarian entrants are most likely to be unemployed, even after five years of settlement."
  • There are some Australians who are well aware of our government committing crimes such as this, and who want it to fix things. Unfortunately, our current government believes in "lock 'em up", while the opposition seems to prefer "turn them back, sink them, anything but let them arrive here". Both positions are incredibly hypocritical, as we don't lock people up who arrive by legal means and then apply for asylum. Neither party seems prepared to meet Australia's international obligations. Neither of them seems to realise that people who have gone to the lengths necessary to travel to this country (through several other countries and involving a few extremely risky ocean voyages) are exactly the kind of innovators we should be welcoming. ... Australia, as with many other countries, seems unable to accept that refugees are people too.
  • Re: "The EU takes in as many asylum seekers in two weeks as Australia does all year." ~ Good for Australia! So the EU takes in 26 times as many - but the EU is 27 countries, with a population of some 500 million, compared to Australia's 22 million, or about 23 times as many. Seems to me that both antipodes are pretty much pulling their weight here.
  • Refugees do not arrive here expecting handouts. We're getting the best and fittest, the keenest people from their communities. People who have been able to make it here! The Vietnamese have paid their way many times over. So have the Greeks, the Italians, the Germans, the English - go back far enough and we're all migrants.
  • Vietnam, while I'm sure is not a fun place to be at times, (though it certainly seemed to have a stable, conflict free and relativity happy populace last time I was there), is certainly not a Afghanistan, Iran or Iraq. In was sense was this child, and her the family that I assume travelled with her, and that you did not mention, asylum seekers? Not that I wish her to remain in the detainment centre, immigrants from the Buddhist parts of SE Asia generally make a pretty good contribution to their host countries. But some explanation of why she was a 'Asylum seeker' would help.
  • This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn't abide by our community standards. Replies may also be deleted.
  • Using immigration to solve the problem for low indigenous birth rates is a giant ponzi scheme. After a generation, you end up with a bigger problem than what you started with and need even more immigration to cope with the ageing population (which now of course, includes a fair portion of retired immigrants, who need feeding). The base of your triangle this keeps widening. Given the very significant changes in longevity, the correct solution to the problem is to accept that the old have to work longer.
  • We're constantly being told that overpopulation is a problem. Falling birth rates are to be encouraged...
  • I wasn't a particularly hard working or intelligent foetus. I didn’t decide where I was going to be born, or work hard to earn a good country of birth. I just lucked out. I know a lot of mothers, and when I ask them if they would do anything for their kids – fight, steal, kill if they have to. I doubt any of these women would be watching their children go through life in mortal danger, or whatever the reasons for an asylum application is, saying “Well, we must abide by the correct procedures.” But then maybe they should have thought about that and been born in Australia instead.
  • How about they give some land back to the aborigines instead of importing replacement settlers?
  • It's time the member states of the EEC followed the Australian example and closed our borders to this mass influx of Asian immigrants. Enough is enough.
  • We've found in the UK and Europe generally that this depends on the country or culture they come from and really can't be assumed. In many cities it isn't unusual to find people who've lived here for years and can barely speak English (or the appropriate European language), if at all. They need interpreters and multi-language printed information and are essentially unemployable. They bring nothing into the country and are a continual drain on society. Each generation of family immigration exacerbates the problem and puts a spanner in the works for the established community as it gradually becomes a foreign-speaking/cultural ghetto and a no-go area for anyone else. I don't blame the Australian government for being cautious - they don't want the shit state that many pockets of Europe have become.
  • Does Australia want to stay 'white'? Is that the problem?
  • Good for Australia. A sovereign nation has every right to put restrictions oh who enters. That western Europe has wimped-out and given up this right, is the most scandalous and heart-breaking policy choices of our age.
  • think that it's up to the Australian Government on who it decides to let in Australia, not indonesian people smugglers. ... Illegal immigrants...are queue jumping. They are taking the place of someone who has no resources to pay people smugglers and has more than likely spent years in a UN refugg camp somewhere.
  • I often wonder why people attack the countries that detain illegal immigrants rather than the shit-holes they are trying to escape from.
  • Australia doesn't have enough water to sustainably support a population any much higher than at present. You might reckon Africa's got lot of deserts, Australia, overall, is more arid than Africa again. So, while there is a lot to be said for Australia being a lifeboat for the rest of the world, what's the point of having a lifeboat if you immediately overload it so that it takes everyoe down with it as it sinks? That said, Australia's dirty big secret is its chronic underinvestment in its own people - Australia has not been educating enough medical professionals for its own needs for years, let alone helping the rest of the world. It's young people are uneducated and hence unemployable, no wonder there's little optimism to have children.
  • Re: "While there was a 20% increase from 2010 to 2011 of people seeking asylum in 44 industrialised nations, Australia saw a 9% decrease." ~ So their strategy of locking up asylum seekers and irregular migrants is working. Perhaps their policies should be emulated rather than derided. If Australia really does need more immigrants it should be able to choose those immigrants and reject those who arrive univited.
  • Think how much more progress we would make with these sorts of problems if we weren't so eternally bombarded by leftist spin! The attempted emotional manipulation fairly drips from this article. ... Things look different depending on whether you look at one individual or 10 million individuals. ... There are 10s of millions of equally suffering little girls and boys all over the world. Why should we not let them all in? How selfish those Australians are to want to keep the present pleasant conditions in their own country rather that see everything dragged down by vast numbers of poor, unskilled parents of suffering little boys and girls, most of whom come from countries with zero tradition of the things such as the rule of law, honest officials, and efficient civil structure, which we associate with a liberal Western society. ... The EU takes in 20 times more asylum seekers because the EU has 20 times the population of Australia. See how much more reasonable things appear when we take out the bleeding-heart spin?
  • I strongly suspect there is still discrimination on the basis of race. There are far, far too many immigrants from Britain. They're distorting the culture, I have noticed this myself during my lifetime. I am always coming across British people without any obvious merits who have nevertheless had no problem settling in Australia. Yet I have a friend in Zimbabwe who is a very talented teacher - I've seen her in action - yet who has not even been able to get a study visa for Aus. Australia should be taking a much larger fraction of its legal immigrants, arguably the bulk of them, from countries in the region. It is just the illegals we have to keep a strict lid on.
  • Re: "So their strategy of locking up asylum seekers and irregular migrants is working." ~ For the IRA, plenty of their bombings and executions worked perfectly - for the victims and their families the fact things worked really well is not much consolation.
  • The Left has peddled some lies over time, but the "immigrants are needed for our pensions" was one that was discredited some time ago and i thought even the Guardian had been too embarrassed to attempt it. But this author would appear to be trying to breath more life into it. Pensions are paid for by people saving during their working lifetimes, Germany has the best funded pensions because it doesn't do ponzi schemes. The recent immigration waves into the UK and Australia has make the pension provision in both countries worse not better (Australia much less so than the UK) as a majority if immigrants are taking more out than they are putting in.
  • The Darwin Airport Lodge is a detention centre that houses immigrants. It is not a prison. A prison is where you reside after being sentenced to custody for committing a crime. With such barefaced dishonesty in the opening paragraph is hard to imagine that the rest of this article will be fair, balanced or measured.
  • I don't see Australia's problem about letting in Asian immigrants, it is after all an Asian country and not a European on and in time will be absorbed into the Asian economic system as much of it's exports, raw materials now go to China and Japan.
  • As usual a lot of mindless, sanctimonious, ignorant tripe here from people who know next to nothing about the reality of Australia, it's immigration system or modern demographic makeup. Australia presently - and for the last few decades - has massive legal immigration from all around the world - with very large legal intakes from both China and India. All of it has been achieved without the kind of large scale social unrest witnessed in the past decades in places like Birmingham, London and Paris. By any reasonable world standard, this is remarkably cohesive and accepting society, contrary to the smug and superior views of some. Like most people I know, I don't object in the slightest to Australia's large immigration and refugee resettlement programs - with the latter taking in many tens of thousands of people from UN camps around the world - most recently from hellholes like Sudan.
  • This is an opportunity for the UK to show its moral superiority and to arrange with the Australians for any immigrant who reaches Australia whom the Australians don't want to be immediately flown to the UK and be allowed to settle there.
  • Australia may end up learning from Austria in the 1970s: Deflationary pressures were only overcome by lowering barriers and allowing Turkish workers in to keep the economy from collapsing.
  • I have witnessed Australia changing for the better over the past decades - in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, Australia was pleading for people to move to Australia, but she only wanted White immigrants - but it seems that she still have a long way to go.
  • To all the right wing anti-immigration nutters wanting to emulate Australia's immigration policies, you guys ARE aware that Australia has one of highets net migration rates in the world, yes? And that it has been among the highest in world for quite a long time? So, if Europe were to emulate Australia, there would be MORE immigrants in Europe. Good thing, eh?
  • Human migration is a reality of humanity, and has always happened.
  • Wish they'd lock up the fucker that has been in control of the british media and government for the last 3 decades
  • Don't open the flood gates Australia. Look at the mess here in the UK and take note.
  • Britain now treats Australians better than Australia treats Britons. Australians [and other Commonwealth citizens] who are granted the right to remain in UK can vote in UK elections and stand for parliament. British citizens who emigrate to Australia can't vote until they are naturalised, and they can't stand for election to the Australian parliament unless they formally renounce their British citizenship.
  • Re: "The EU takes in as many asylum seekers in two weeks as Australia does all year." ~ Possibly one of the most dishonest use of statistics I've seen in a long while (and on CIF, that's saying something). When you have to resort to a deceit like this, it pretty much discredits your entire argument.
  • The White Australia was originally proposed by the Trade Union movement, to stop 'coloured labour' undercutting white men's wages. It was a basic plank of the Australia Labor Party from its inception. It was dismantled in 1966 by the Liberal-National Coalition government [the closest thing Australia has to the UK's Conservatives]. The Australian Labor Party approved a non-discriminatory immigration policy as part of its Party Platform in 1971. In 1973 the Labor government issued a policy of completely disregarding race in immigration. There is no racial aspect in current immigration law or practice in Australia.
  • Re: "Australia's natives were not merely 'displaced', they where slaughtered, raped, driven to slavery, disease and visited with every kind of misery concievable." ~ Yes, you're right. And this happened between 1788 and the mid 1800s when Australia was a British colony. The rapes and killings were committed, sanctioned, and in many cases organised by British governors with the support of Whitehall. Australia was Britain up until 1901. So when digesting these facts, and they are indisputably facts, do you not find it a little incongruous that you are getting all self-righteous when it was your own people and your own nation that did these things? You and your people and your leaders have a lot to apologise for in regards to aboriginals. You would possibly not look quite as stupid if you knew these elementary facts and kept your mouth shut; the fact you shoot it off and are so comically ignorant of your own nation's centrality in the 'displacement' of aboriginals makes you look a supreme fool.
  • Australia now have a healthy immigration flow from all around the world and from many cultures. The White Australia Policy is dead and has been for some time.
  • Poverty levels in Australia are reaching US levels, the social welfare system as eg the UK knows it hardly exists, a huge housing bubble makes Australia the most expensive country in the world in that respect, grocery prices are above UK levels, and crime rates for eg burglary and car theft are amongst the highest in the world.
  • So sick of this Ponzi scheme of an idea that dictates that we must grow our population exponentially and indefinitely so that we have people to support the elderly population. The world is overpopulated, and Australia's relatively sparse population (though that is misleading, since most of Australia is uninhabitable desert) is a blessing, not a curse.
  • Any debate on immigration has been ruined by papers like the Guardian shouting racism at anyone who disagrees.
  • The multi-cultural experiment and mass migration that drives it has failed and caused nothing but segregation,racism and the rise of far right once again. Australia should learn its lesson from Europe and keep its boarder policies.
  • In my opinion more and more Turks should immigrate into Australia.
  • These ageing Australians went through the 50s, 60s and into the 70s believing in the "yellow peril" and superiority of the white race backed up with government legislation. Don't believe for a second that changing the legislation magically switched off such perceptions.
  • Australia is a joke of a country, even worse kind of joke than the US, what 'society' are you even talking about, a random mix of convicts, rejects, chancers and sheep.
  • Australia doesn't have any demographic emergency. The TFR is about 2.0, which while slightly lower than replacement, doesn't exactly on a par with South Korea, where the TFR is 1.2. ... Wealthy countries can manage labour shortages (if they have them) by continually issuing temporary work visas which don't turn into permanent residence.
  • Australia has one of the highest fertility rates in the developed world.
  • Racism is sadly in the political DNA.
  • The UK, one of the most densely populated countries in the world, where mass migration was getting increasingly unpopular with mainstream voters owing to pressure on housing and public services, chose to emulate the immigration policy of Australia, one of the least densely populated countries, which encourages immigrants, and whose policy is concerned with ensuring high quality immigrants rather than restraining the amount -- except the UK established weaker quality standards.
  • Time to place blame where it belongs: the democratic majority that opposes immigration.
  • Being white will help little when you're old and poor.




Far Right on its knees -- slobber, slobber -- but Kikes "not stupid"

"Philo-Semitism" = "Anti-Semitism"

Don't be fooled. Europe's far-right racists are not discerning

Opportunistic words of love for Jews and Israel cannot disguise the European far right's toxic rhetoric of hatred

Anne Karpf, guardian.co.uk, 27 March 2012

On Saturday, in the Danish city of Aarhus, a Europe-wide rally organised by the English Defence League will try to set up a European anti-Muslim movement. For Europe's far-right parties the rally, coming so soon after the murders in south-west France by a self-professed al-Qaida-following Muslim, marks a moment rich with potential political capital.

Yet it's also a delicate one, especially for Marine Le Pen. Well before the killings,Le Pen was assiduously courting Jews, even while her father and founder of the National Front, Jean-Marie Le Pen, was last month convicted of contesting crimes against humanity for saying that the Nazi occupation of France "wasn't particularly inhumane". Marine must disassociate herself from such sentiments without repudiating her father personally or alienating his supporters. To do so she's laced her oft-expressed Islamophobia [KIKE-WORD] (parts of France, she's said, are suffering a kind of Muslim "occupation") with a newfound "philozionism" (love of Zionism), which has extended even to hobnobbing with Israel's UN ambassador.

Almost all European far-right parties have come up with the same toxic cocktail. The Dutch MP Geert Wilders, leader of the anti-immigrant Freedom party, has compared the Qur'an to Mein Kampf. In Tel Aviv in 2010, he declared that "Islam threatens not only Israel, Islam threatens the whole world. If Jerusalem falls today, Athens and Rome, Amsterdam and Paris will fall tomorrow."

Meanwhile Filip Dewinter, leader of Belgium's Vlaams Belang party, which grew out of the Vlaams Blok Flemish nationalist party, many of whose members collaborated with the Nazis during the second world war, has proposed a quota on the number of young Belgian-born Muslims allowed in public swimming pools. Dewinter calls Judaism "a pillar of European society", yet associates with antisemites, while claiming that "multi-culture ... like Aids weakens the resistance of the European body", and "Islamophobia is a duty".

But the most rabidly Islamophobic European philozionist is Heinz-Christian Strache, head of the Austrian Freedom party, who compared foreigners to harmful insects and consorts with neo-Nazis. And yet where do we find Strache in December 2010? In Jerusalem alongside Dewinter, supporting Israel's right to defend itself.

In Scandinavia the anti-immigrant Danish People's party is a vocal supporter of Israel. And Siv Jensen, leader of the Norwegian Progress party and staunch supporter of Israel, has warned of the stealthy Islamicisation of Norway.

In Britain EDL leader Tommy Robinson, in his first public speech, sported a star of David. At anti-immigrant rallies, EDL banners read: "There is no place for Fascist Islamic Jew Haters in England".

So has the Jew, that fabled rootless cosmopolitan, now suddenly become the embodiment of European culture, the "us" against which the Muslim can be cast as "them"? It's not so simple. For a start, "traditional" antisemitism hasn't exactly evaporated. Look at Hungary, whose ultra-nationalist Jobbik party is unapologetically Holocaust-denying, or Lithuania, where revisionist MPs claim that the Jews were as responsible as the Nazis for the second world war.

["AS responsible"? BWAAAAHAHAHA]

What's more, the "philosemite", who professes to love Jews and attributes superior intelligence and culture to them, is often (though not always) another incarnation of the antisemite, who projects negative qualities on to them: both see "the Jew" as a unified racial category. Beneath the admiring surface, philozionism isn't really an appreciation of Jewish culture but rather the opportunistic endorsement of Israeli nationalism and power.

Indeed you can blithely sign up to both antisemitism and philozionism. Norwegian mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik described himself as "pro-Zionist" while claiming that Europe has a "considerable Jewish problem"; he saw himself as simultaneously anti-Nazi and pro-monoculturalism. The British National party's Nick Griffin once called the Holocaust the "Holohoax", subsequently supported Israel in its war "against the terrorists", but the day after the Oslo murders tweeted disparagingly that Breivik was a "Zionist".

Most Jews, apart from the Israeli right wing, aren't fooled. They see the whole iconography of Nazism – vermin and foreign bodies, infectious diseases and alien values – pressed into service once again, but this time directed at Muslims. They understand that "my enemy's enemy" can easily mutate into "with friends like these ...".

The philozionism of European nationalist parties has been scrutinised most closely by Adar Primor, the foreign editor of Haaretz newspaper, who insists that "they have not genuinely cast off their spiritual DNA, and ... aren't looking for anything except for Jewish absolution that will bring them closer to political power."

Similarly Dave Rich, spokesman of the Community Security Trust (CST), which monitors antisemitic incidents in Britain, told me that far-right philosemites "must think we're pretty stupid if they think we'll get taken in by that. The moment their perceived political gain disappears they revert to type. We completely reject their idea that they hate Muslims so they like Jews. What targets one community at one time can very easily move on to target another community if the climate changes." Rich's words, spoken before the murder of Jews in Toulouse, now sound chillingly prescient. The president of the French Jewish community, Richard Pasquier, judges Marine Le Pen more dangerous than her father.

French Muslim leaders rallied round Jewish communities last week.[ Next week sees the start of Passover, a festival celebrating the liberation of Jews from slavery in Egypt, when Jews often think about modern examples of oppression. Let's hope that French Jewish leaders use the occasion to rally round Muslim communities, and to remember that ultimately, racism is indiscriminate.


J.R.R. Tolkien, 1961.12.30:

"I am a natural niggler, alas!"


Ritualmord (Hartmann Schedels Weltchronik von 1493)


Das von den Juden getötete Mägdlein

Brüder Grimm

Im Jahre 1267 war zu Pforzheim eine alte Frau, die verkaufte den Juden aus Geiz ein unschuldiges siebenjähriges Mädchen. Die Juden stopften ihm den Mund, daß es nicht schreien konnte, schnitten ihm die Adern auf und umwanden es, um sein Blut aufzufangen, mit Tüchern. Das arme Kind starb bald unter der Marter, und sie warfen's in die Enz, eine Last von Steinen obendrauf. Nach wenigen Tagen reckte Margaretchen ihr Händlein über dem fließenden Wasser in die Höhe; das sahen die Fischer und entsetzten sich; bald lief das Volk zusammen und auch der Markgraf selbst. Es gelang den Schiffern, das Kind herauszuziehen, das noch lebte, aber, nachdem es Rache über seine Mörder gerufen, in den Tod verschied. Der Argwohn traf die Juden, alle wurden zusammengefordert, und wie sie dem Leichnam nahten, floß aus den offenen Wunden stromweise das Blut. Die Juden und das alte Weib bekannten die Untat und wurden hingerichtet. Beim Eingang der Schloßkirche zu Pforzheim, da, wo man die Glockenseile zum Geläut ziehet, stehet der Sarg des Kindes mit einer Inschrift. Unter der Schifferzunft hat sich von Kind zu Kind einstimmig die Sage fortgepflanzt, daß damals der Markgraf ihren Vorfahren zur Belohnung die Wachtfreiheit, »solang Sonne und Mond leuchten«, in der Stadt Pforzheim und zugleich das Vorrecht verliehen habe, daß alle Jahre um Fastnachtsmarkt vierundzwanzig Schiffer mit Waffen und klingendem Spiel aufziehen und an diesem Tag Stadt und Markt allein bewachen sollen. Dies gilt auf den heutigen Tag.

The Girl Who Was Killed by Jews

By The Brothers Grimm

In the year 1267 in Pforzheim an old woman, driven by greed, sold an innocent seven-year-old girl to the Jews. The Jews gagged her to keep her from crying out, cut open her veins, and surrounded her in order to catch her blood with cloths. The child soon died from the torture, and they weighted her down with stones and threw her into the Enz River.

A few days later little Margaret reached her little hand above the streaming water. A number of people, including the Margrave himself soon assembled. Some boatmen succeeded in pulling the child out of the water. She was still alive, but as soon as she had called for vengeance against her murderers, she died.

Suspicion fell upon the Jews, and they were all summoned to appear. As they approached the corpse, blood began to stream from its open wounds. The Jews and the old woman confessed the evil deed and were executed. The child's coffin, with an inscription, stands next to the bell rope near the entrance to the palace church at Pforzheim.

Children of the members the boatmen's guild unanimously pass the legend from generation to generation that at that time the Margrave rewarded their ancestors by freeing them from sentry duty in the city of Pforzheim "as long as the sun and the moon continue to shine." At the same time they were given the right to be represented by twenty-four boatmen, carrying arms and musical instruments, who parade and stand watch over the city every year at the Carnival celebration. This privilege applies even to this day.



Kirche Judenstein, Rinn, Tirol, Österreich (Grabstein)

Grabstein, Kirche Judenstein, Rinn, Tirol, Österreich





Der Judenstein

Brüder Grimm

Im Jahre 1462 ist es zu Tirol im Dorfe Rinn geschehen, daß etliche Juden einen armen Bauer durch eine große Menge Geld dahin brachten, ihnen sein kleines Kind hinzugeben. Sie nahmen es mit hinaus in den Wald und marterten es dort auf einem großen Stein, seitdem der Judenstein genannt, auf die entsetzlichste Weise zu Tod. Den zerstochenen Leichnam hingen sie darnach an einen unfern einer Brücke stehenden Birkenbaum. Die Mutter des Kindes arbeitete gerade im Feld, als der Mord geschah; auf einmal kamen ihr Gedanken an ihr Kind, und ihr wurde, ohne daß sie wußte warum, so angst; indem fielen auch drei frische Blutstropfen nacheinander auf ihre Hand. Voll Herzensbangigkeit eilte sie heim und begehrte nach ihrem Kind. Der Mann zog sie in die Kammer, gestand, was er getan, und wollte ihr nun das schöne Geld zeigen, das sie aus aller Armut befreie, aber es war all in Laub verwandelt. Da ward der Vater wahnsinnig und grämte sich tot, aber die Mutter ging aus und suchte ihr Kindlein, und als sie es an dem Baum hängend gefunden, nahm sie es unter heißen Tränen herab und trug es in die Kirche nach Rinn. Noch jetzt liegt es dort und wird vom Volk als ein heiliges Kind betrachtet. Auch der Judenstein ist dorthin gebracht. Der Sage nach hieb ein Hirt den Baum ab, an dem das Kindlein gehangen, aber als er ihn nach Haus tragen wollte, brach er ein Bein und mußte daran sterben.


By The Brothers Grimm

In the year 1462 in the village of Rinn in Tyrol a number of Jews convinced a poor farmer to surrender his small child to them in return for a large sum of money. They took the child out into the woods, where, on a large stone, they martyred it to death in the most unspeakable manner. From that time the stone has been called the Jews' Stone. Afterward they hung the mutilated body on a birch tree not far from a bridge.

The child's mother was working in a field when the murder took place. She suddenly thought of her child, and without knowing why, she was overcome with fear. Meanwhile, three drops of fresh blood fell onto her hand, one after the other. Filled with terror she rushed home and asked for her child. Her husband brought her inside and confessed what he had done. He was about to show her the money that would free them from poverty, but it had turned into leaves. Then the father became mad and died from sorrow, but the mother went out and sought her child. She found it hanging from the tree and, with hot tears, took it down and carried it to the church at Rinn. It is lying there to this day, and the people look on it as a holy child. They also brought the Jews' Stone there.

According to legend a shepherd cut down the birch tree, from which the child had hung, but when he attempted to carry it home he broke his leg and died from the injury.

Judenstein Kirche im Winter

Judenstein Kirche im Winter


Medieval Sourcebook: 
A Blood Libel Cult: 
Anderl von Rinn, d. 1462

The Image 

The illustration on the right, located at the cult-church of Anderl von Rinn until recently, portrays the "martyrdom" of Anderl, a three year-old boy who became the focus of a blood-libel cult in the seventeenth-century. Anderl is the child being held down and having his throat slit. The killers are clearly marked as Jews by their clothes and turbans (one form of the "special mark" Jews were forced to carry by Church decree). 

 The third, lower, figure is collecting the child's blood in a bowl. The myth of the blood libel was that the blood of a Christian child was used to make Passover matzohs. 

 Note that, as Prof. Schafer recounts below, this cult was allowed to continue in Austria until the 1990s, when Bishop Reinhold Stecher had the images removed. 

 The text of the motto reads: "Sie schneiden dem Marterer, die Gurgl ab und nemen alles Blut von Ihm", literally "they cut throat of the martyr and take all blood from him" or in other words, "They cut the martyr's throat and drain all his blood." 

The Origins of the Story

[Adapted from a note by Veronika Schoennegger, <Veronika.Schoenegger@uibk.ac.at> of the University of Innsbruck, Austria]

The cult of Anderl von Rinn (the name "Anderl" is a diminuative of "Andrew", like Gretel for Greta) had its origins in the fifteenth century, but only became really popular in the 17th century.

In 1619 a Dr. Hippolyt Guarinoni (1571-1654) heard a story about little boy who was buried in Rinn and had been murdered by Jews. Guarinoni dreamed that the year of death of this boy was 1462. The modern celebration of the the cult of Anderl began in 1621 and by the late 17th century the cult of Anderl was established throughout the Tyrol, together with other boys who had supposedly been killed by Jews (e.g. Simon of Trent). In 1642 Guarinoni himself wrote a book Triumph Cron Marter Vnd Grabschrift des Heilig Unschuldigen Kindts [Triumph, Crown(?), Martyrdom and Epitaph of the Holy Innocent Child].

Some years ago, the bishop of Innsbruck [Bishop Stecher] tried to forbid the anti-Semitic cult and the body of Anderl was transferred from the church to the churchyard of Judenstein in 1985. And in 1994 the cult was officially forbidden and Anderl was supposed to becomea symbol of antisemitism and of crimes against little children. Nevertheless, some very conservative people make a procession to his grave every year.

There aren't many written sources for the story, it is more a part of Tyrolean oral tradition.

[Kathy Rabenstein adds:] In lists of saints, Anderl appears as "Blessed Andrew of Rinn" (b. 1459; d. 1462) - "a boy allegedly put to death by Jews out of hatred for Christ at Rinn near Innsbruck, Austria. The facts are doubtful. Pope Benedict XIV (1740-58) [who also wrote the anti-Semitic encyclical A Quo Primum 1751] allowed the continuation of the local cultus but refused to proceed to Andrew's canonization."


The Judenstein [Jewry-Stone] 
[Translation by Paul Halsall]:

The story connected to the above picture was recorded by the German folklorists, the Grimm brothers, in the early nineteenth century. What follows is my translation of the story. [The German text is given at the end of this file].

In 1462 it so happened that in the Tyrol, in the village of Rinn, several Jews persuaded a poor farmer give up his little child, by paying him a lot of money. They took the child out into the forest and in the most horrible manner, martyred him there on a big stone, which is ever since called the "Judenstein" ["the Jewry-stone"]. The dead corpse they hung on a birch tree standing near a bridge. Now, the mother of the child was working in a field as the murder happened, and at once her thoughts turned to her child and without knowing why she became very afraid, and then, one after another, three fresh drops of blood fell on her hand. Full of anxiousness she hurried home and sought after her child. Her husband led her into the room and confessed what he had done. He wanted to show her the money which had released them from poverty, but it had all transformed into leaves. Then the father lost his mind and died of grief, but the mother went out to look for their little-child, and when she found it hanged on a tree, took it down with hot tears and carried it into the church in Rinn. And still the child lies there and is viewed by the people as a sacred child. The Judenstein was also brought there. It is said that a shepherd chopped down the tree on which the child had hanged, but when he wanted to take it to his home, he broke a leg and had to die.

Blood Libel Saints: Names and  Links:

This is only a selection of possible material: The ritual murder accusation became epidemic throughout Europe. The old Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. III, 266, lists the following cases, beginning with William of Norwich: 5 other cases given for the twelfth century, 15 for the thirteenth, 10 for the fourteenth, 16 for the fifteenth, 13 for the sixteenth, 8 for the seventeenth, 15 for the eighteenth, and 39 for the nineteenth, going right up to the year 1900 [total 113]. There have been many more cases in the 20th century.

Other Information in the Medieval Sourcebook

  • Socrates Scholasticus: Ecclesiastical History, 7:16 recounts an early Christian version of story about Jews killing a Christian child. In this case, the child does not seem to have become the focus of a cult.

      Book 7: Chap 16: The Jews commit Another Outrage upon the Christians and are punished 
      Soon afterwards the Jews renewed their malevolent and impious practices against the Christians, and drew down upon themselves deserved punishment. At a place named Inmestar, situated between Chalcis and Antioch in Syria, the Jews were amusing themselves in their usual way with a variety of sports. In this way they indulged in many absurdities, and at length impelled by drunkenness they were guilty of scoffing at Christians and even Christ himself; and in derision of the cross and those who put their trust in the Crucified One, they seized a Christian boy, and having bound him to a cross, began to laugh and sneer at him. But in a little while becoming so transported with fury, they scourged the child until he died under their hands. This conduct occasioned a sharp conflict between them and the Christians; and as soon as the emperors were informed of the circumstance, they issued orders to the governor of the province to find out and punish the delinquents. And thus the Jewish inhabitants of this place paid the penalty for the wickedness they had committed in their impious sport.

    • Story of St. William of Norwich  [Account by Thomas of Monmouth]
      An English blood libel cult dating from 1144. [Feast day: March 26]. The first recorded blood libel cult. See the Catholic Encylopedia [1913] article William of Norwich for much background information. [Note that this article, while rejecting the Ritual Murder and Blood Libels, does end by suggesting that some of the cases were based on real incidents.]
    • Cult of St. Robert of St. Edmundsbury [Jocelin of Brakelond wrote a Miracles of St. Robert.See text of his Chronicle of the Abbey of St. Edmunds for short discussion]. This boy was supposed to have  been martyred by the Jews in 1181, who was entombed in the church at Edmundsbury.
    • Cult of "Little St. Hugh" of Lincoln [Feast day: July 27] , whose body was found in a well in 1255, and the death ascribed to Jews. Eighteen [or twenty by some counts] Jews were hanged for his "murder" and ninety were imprisoned and condemned to death in London (although they were released on the payment of a fine). See the Catholic Encylopedia [1913] article St. Hugh for much background information. Cf. Chaucer's Prioress's Tale in which Hugh is invoked.
          O you young Hugh of Lincoln, slain also 
          By cursed Jews, as is well known to all, 
          Since it was but a little while ago, 
          Pray you for us, sinful and weak, who call, 
          That, of His mercy, God will still let fall 
          Something of grace, and mercy multiply, 
          For reverence of His Mother dear on high. Amen.
    • St. Simon of Trent's Murder - Image [At Kenyon College]
      A 15 th century woodcut facsimile, from Hartmann Schedel's Nuremburg Chronicle orBuch der Chroniken, printed by Anton Koberger in 1493. Both the Buch der Chronikenand the facsimile are located at Kenyon College. St. Simon of Trent [Feast day: March 24] was a two and a half year old child said to have been killed by a Jewish Doctor at Trento [Northern Italy] in 1475. The cult was only suppressed by the Catholic Church in 1965. This image makes clear the theme of forcible circumcision.

Other Medieval Blood Libel Saints

There were many other such "killed by Jews" Saints. Here is the list by date from André Vauchez,La Saintete en Occident (1981), pp. 176-77.  [Vauchez does name all Medieval cases - e.g. he does not include Robert of St. Edmundsbury.] What follows is Vauchez's list, with extra comments by Kathy Rubenstein on the extent of the Roman/ecclesiastical approval of the cults.

  • William of Norwich, d. 1144 
    - Approved cultus, f.d. March 24, aged 12 -- The case for the crime does notseem to been established. The boy was murdered and may have been murdered by Jews, but there is no evidence that it was done out of hatred for Christianity.
  • Richard of Pontoise or of Paris, d. 1179 -
  • Herbert of Huntingdon, d. 1180 -
  • Dominic of Val, 1250 
    - Approved cultus. f.d. August 31. a.k.a. Dominguito. "He was a 7-yr-old altar boy at the cathedral of Saragossa, who was kidnapped by Jews and nailed against a wall. His feast is celebrated throughout Aragon." (Benedictines)
  • Hugh of Lincoln, d. 1255 
    - Approved cultus. Interesting to note that King Henry III conducted the judicial investigation that end in 18 Jews being hanged.
  • Werner or Oberwesel, d. 1287 
    - Approved cultus. f.d. April 19. a.k.a. Wernher. Employed by Jews who were accused of murdering him on Holy Thursday, just after he had received Communion.
  • Rudolf of Berne, d. 1294 -
  • Conrad of Weissensee, d. 1303 -
  • Louis or Ludwig of Ravensburg d. 1429 
    - Approved cultus. f.d. April 30. Murdered at Easter. a.k.a. Ludwig von Bruck.
  • Anderl of Rinn, d. 1462 
    - Called "Blessed," possibly because the canonization process was pretty well developed by this point. Benedict XIV allowed the continuation of the local cultus but refused to proceed to Andrew's canonization. Approved cultus. f.d. July 12. a.k.a. Andrew of Rinn.
  • Simon of Trent, d. 1475 
    - This one is the worst. He was included in the Roman Martyrology (and perhaps still is listed with a feast day on March 24), until the Sacred Congregation of Rites forbade all future veneration. The Benedictines of Ramsgate say, "A child living at Trent in N. Italy who is said to have been murdered by Jews at Eastertide out of hatred of Christ. The confession of the Jews was obtained under torture. The trial was reviewed at Rome by Sixtus IV in 1478 but he did not authorize the cult of St. Simon. This however was done by Sixtus V in 1588, largely on account of the miracles." So, he was apparently declared a saint not so much for his supposed martyrdom but that God revealed he was in heaven with him by the miracles worked through his intercession. Obviously, the cultus was nixed because the story sends the wrong signal.
  • Lorenzino Sossio, d. 1485 
    - Cultus approved in 1867. f.d. April 15. (note that most of these occurred around Eastertime). a.k.a. Laurentinus Sossius, age 5, killed on Good Friday.

Other Medieval Blood Libel Links

  • Pope Gregory X: Letter on Jews, (1271-76) Against the Blood Libel
  • Anti-Semitic Legends, translated and/or edited by D. L. Ashliman.
    Contains another translation of the Judenstein story, as well as other German anti-Semitic tales.
  • Picture of Rinn
    An idyllic Tirolean town. Now promoted as a ski resort.
  • Roman Catholic Church: Commission For Religious Relations With the Jews: Notes on the Correct Way to Present the Jews and Judaism in Preaching and Catechesis in the Roman Catholic Church.
    These guidelines appeared in the July 1, 1985 issue of L'Osservatore Romano.


  • Baumgarten, Emanuel, Die Blutbeschuldigung gegen die Juden. Stimmen christlicher Theologen, Orientalisten und Historiker. Die bullen der Papste. Simon von Trient, (Vienna: Verlag von Dr. Block's "Oesterreichischen Wochenschrift" [1900?])
  • Clement XIV, Pope, 1705-1774, The Ritual Murder Libel and the Jew: The Report by Cardinal Lorenzo Ganganelli (Pope Clement XIV.), edited by Cecil Roth. (London : Woburn Press, 1935) [There were also German translations.]
  • Daniel Chwolson, Die Blutanklage und sonstige mittelalterliche Beschuldigungen der Juden: Eine historische Untersuchung nach den Quellen, (Frankfurt: 1901)

  • [Deborah Jo Miller comments: "written amidst a wave of new ritual murder accusations against Jews in Russia in the 1870s,  was...aimed at discrediting current myths with the aid of historiography."]
  • Alan Dundes. "The Ritual Murder or Blood Libel Legend: A Study of Anti-Semitic Victimization through Projective Inversion," in The Blood Libel Legend: A Casebook in Anti-Semitic Folklore. Edited by Alan Dundes. (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991)
    Extracts [as given at the Golem Page]

      Among the prime candidates for placement under the rubric of the folklore of evil, I would rank at or very near the top of the list the so-called blood libel legend. Other phrases designating this vicious legend include blood accusations and ritual murder (accusation). These terms are used almost interchangeably but there are several scholars who have sought to distinguish between ritual murder and blood libel, arguing that ritual murder refers to a sacrificial murder in general whereas the blood libel entails specific use of the blood of the victim. In the case of alleged Jewish ritual murder, the blood motivation is nearly always present which presumably accounts for the equally common occurrence of both ritual murder and blood libel as labels. 
      . . . 
      The blood libel legend is not only the basis of ongoing festivals, but it has also been memorialized in church decoration. Legends proclaiming the Jewish "ritual murder" of Christian children or the profanation or desecration of holy wafers are celebrated in various European towns in such artistic forms as tapestries or stained glass church windows. For example, there are such windows or pictures or tapestries ornamenting the choir of the Saint Michael-Saint Gudule Cathedral in Brussels, a ceiling fresco in the small Tyrol village of Judenstein, paintings in a church sanctuary in the Vienna suburb of Korneuberg, and a stained glass window in a Paris church chapel. 
      . . . 
      It would be one thing if this classic bit of anti-Semitic folklore existed only in ballad or legend form, but the sad truth is that what has been so often described in legend and literature is also alleged to have occurred in life. There have not been tens, but hundreds of actual cases of blood libel tried in various courts in various countries. The map of Western and Eastern Europe and the Near East is profusely dotted with sites where ritual murders were said to have occurred. 
      . . . 
      The sad truth about the blood libel legend is not so much that it was created-the need for such a psychological projection on the part of Christians is evident enough-but that it was believed to be true and accepted as such and that the lives of many individual Jews were adversely affected by some bloodthirsty Christians who believed or pretended to believe in the historicity of the blood libel legend. [from pp. 337, 339, 341, 360.]

  • Rainer Erb, ed., Die Legende vom Ritualmord : zur Geschichte der Blutbeschuldigung gegen Juden, (Berlin: Metropol, c1993)
  • W. Kunzemann, Judenstein: Das Ende einer Legende, (Innsbruck: 1995)

      This book  provides background, history and documentation of the official removal from pilgrimage status of a place near Innsbruck known as Judenstein and a chapel dedicated to the veneration of Anderl von Rinn, a three-year old boy allegedly murdered by Jews in the 15th century. The Association of Contemporary Church Historians Newsletter 5: June 1995 includes the comment that "This book documents the ways of thinking and actions of people who over many centuries have excluded, stigmatized and killed Jews. It documents the guilt of the Church. . .which also psychologically prepared the way for the Holocaust. It also documents the work of those such as the present bishop of Innsbruck, Stecher, who are trying to work off the sad mortgage by setting the record straight, and are now dedicated to Christian penance and reconciliation with the people of Israel."

  • Lipschitz, Leopold, Christliche Zeugnisse gegen die Blutbeschuldigung der Juden, (Berlin: Walther & Apolant, 1882)
  • Deborah Jo Miller, The Development of the 'Ritual Murder' Accusation in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries and its Relationship to the Changing Attitudes of Christians towards Jews . M. Phil. thesis, Cambridge 1991.
  • Deborah Jo Miller, Blood Libel and Ritual Murder 1 and Blood Libel and Ritual Murder 2[Both informative usenet posts.]
  • Deborah Jo Miller, Cornell University, Patterns of Anti-Jewish Violence in the Wake of the Earliest Ritual Murder Accusations
    A paper delivered April 16, 1994 at the Fordham University Conference on "Violence in the Middle Ages"

      The paper points out that the earliest blood libel accusations were not accompanied by actual violence against Jews.

  • R.I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987)
  • Osiander, Andreas, 1498-1552. Schrift uber die Blutbeschuldigung, hrsg. von Moritz Stern, (Kiel: H. Fiencke, 1893)
  • Lancelot Sheppard, Saints who never were, (Dayton OH: Pflaum Press, 1969)
  • Hermann Leberecht Strack, Der Blutaberglaube in der Menschheit: Blutmorde und Blutritus: zugleich eine Antwort auf die Herausforderung des "Osservatore Cattolico", (Munich: C.H. Beck, 1892). The 8th edition translated into English by Henry Blanchamp asThe Jew and Human Sacrifice = Human Blood and Jewish Ritual: An Historical and Sociological Inquiry, (London: Cope and Fenwick, 1909)

      Deborah Jo Miller comments: "Strack, a professor of theology at Berlin University, concentrated on beliefs held by Christians and Jews at various times throughout history regarding the properties of blood, then followed with a refutation of the antisemitic slanders spread by his contemporary Canon Rohling and a scrutiny of the purported historical 'evidence' for the practice of human sacrifice among Jews."

  • Moritz Stern, ed., Die päpstlichen Bullen über die Blutbeschuldigung, (Berlin: 1893: Munchen : A. Schupp, 1900.).
        Includes the bulls of several Popes and the opinion of Lorenzo Gangenelli, then a consultor of the Holy Office, later Pope Clement XIV. In Latin or Italian, with German trans.
  • Herbert Thurston, "Antisemitism and the Charge of Ritual Murder", The Month, XC (London, 1898), 561;
  • Vacandard, Elphege, "Question du meutre rituel" in Etudes de critique et d'histoire religieuse, III (Paris, 1912)


By Ingrid H. Shafer, Ph.D. 
[Adapted, with permission, from the ARCC Web Page http://astro.temple.edu/~arcc/]

    The illustration at the head of this page comes from a small pilgrim church in the village of Rinn near Innsbruck, Austria, where one of my teachers took us for a class outing in the early 1950s to learn all about the evil Jews who centuries before had slit the throat of Blessed little Anderl to obtain his blood--a tale now thoroughly discredited.

    In the 1990s, due to the efforts of Bishop Reinhold Stecher, the panels were replaced by a painting of children gathered around Jesus and by plaques reminding visitors of the terrible injustices suffered by Jews at the hands of Christians over the past millennium.

    In the harsh and turbulent frontier world of the early medieval period Christians and Jews lived side by side for several centuries until Church officials were able to enforce legislation to keep them apart. However, not until the era of the Norman and Turkish invasions, followed by the crusades, were Jewish communities systematically attacked and destroyed by Christian mobs. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council [canon 68] ordered Jews to wear a distinctive badge and live in ghettos to protect Christians from contamination.

    Soon rumors spread of Jews and heretics killing Christians for their blood to be used in secret rituals. Some bishops and popes tried to dispel those rumors, but the accusations continued. Other members of the hierarchy fanned the flames of hatred. When the plague struck Europe, Jews were suspected of poisoning wells. Thousands died in the resulting massacres. Pope Innocent III compared the Jews to Cain, condemned to perpetual homelessness.

    Under the Dominican Thomas Torquemada the Spanish Inquisition sought to rid Christendom of heretics, apostates, witches, and Jews [See the informative, but very defensive, Catholic Encylopedia article: The Inquisition.] In 1492 all Jews who refused to convert were expelled from Spain. In the 16th century, anyone of Jewish descent, no matter how remote, was excluded from office in Spain. Eventually, Jews were required to wear special pointed hats and badges throughout Europe. Walls were erected around ghettos.


Modern Persistence of The Blood Libel

  • Herta Herzog, "The Jews as 'Others': On Communicative Aspects of Antisemitism." ACTA NO. 4, Jerusalem: SICSA, 1994 [at http://www2.huji.ac.il/www_jcd/4herta.htm]
    A paper on modern Austrian attitudes towards Jews, based on extensive interviews. Herzog asked about stories her respondents knew about Jews. She got this response: "Only two people referred to anti-Judaic myths when reporting stories they had heard about the Jews. Both mentioned the story of Anderl von Rinn, a ritual murder myth from the Tyrol, and the poisoning of wells ascribed to Jews. The young mechanic had a number of stories to tell: Little Christian children are murdered for their ritual feasts.... They drink the fresh blood. That is also the story of Anderl.... They poison all wells --have done that for a thousand years.... They steal the consecrated wafers and throw them to the pigs."
  • Belarus Blood Libel Documentary, July 27, 1997 [at http://www.ucsj.com/stories/091697aa.shtml]
    On July 27, 1997 Belarusria State television broadcast a documentary which accused Jews of murdering a Belarussian child in the seventeenth century. The program asserted that in 1690, Gavril Belatovsky, a six-year-old boy who has since been canonized by the Belarussian Orthodox Church, was abducted by a group of Jews, tortured, and completely drained of his blood, which was used to bake matzoh for the Passover celebration. Since its broadcast on July 27, no member of either the government or the Orthodox Church has come forward to condemn the program's libelous conclusions.
  • Modern American National Socialism:
    This post appeared on a number of email lists in July 1997. It was written by a modern American "National Socialist". The post is disturbing, and factually incorrect. The direct connection between Medieval anti-Semitisim and modern Anti-Semitism could not be clearer.

Subject: Why I Believe In Jewish Ritual Murder  
From: nswpp@ix.netcom.com(NSWPP)  
Date: 1997/09/29  
Newsgroups: triangle.politics,alt.nswpp,alt.politics.white-power,alt.skinheads.  WHY I BELIEVE IN JEWISH RITUAL MURDER 

Yes, I do believe that the Jews have practiced ritual murder as part of their religious ceremonies in the past, and that they almost certainly do so today, with the following qualifiers: 

 *I do not believe this practice is or ever has been widespread, but has always been restricted to a small number of the most hard-core rabbis and Jewish cabalistic mystic sects; 

 *I am perfectly willing to accept the likelihood that individual Jews down through history have been falsely accused of this practice, just as I believe that on the other hand it has often been carried out undetected and/or unpunished. The Beiliss case in 1913 Russia is a good case in point: Mendel Beiliss himself was probably innocent of the actual commission of murder although he may have been peripherally involved in covering up the act on the part of his co-religionists; 

 *I am willing to accept that the overwhelming majority of Jews are unaware that the "blood libel" has at least a partial grounding in fact and genuinely believe it to be a slander, just as most Jews probably believe that the Holocaust occurred more or less as advertised despite mounting evidence to the contrary. 

 My belief in the preceding is based on two foundations: 

 extensive study of the historical, cultural, and religious aspects of Judaism, and my own personal observation, dealings, and experience with the Jews as individual people over a period of 25 years. I don't want this e-mail to get too prolix, since this isn't really my area of enthusiasm---the Jews' public and political crimes are far worse than their private religious ones---but briefly summarized: 

 1. There is an immense amount of anecdotal and circumstantial evidence that these sacrificial homicides took place in the past, back in times when concealment was harder and Aryans far more aware and wary of the Jew than they are today. 

It is significant that ever since the days of Babylon, a period of almost four thousand years, this accusation (like many others) has been leveled against the Jews EVERYWHERE THEY HAVE EVER RESIDED in the world. Time and again down through the ages the Jews have been caught literally red-handed, in some cases toting the dead body of the child whose blood they have drained away to dispose of it in sacks or wagons, sometimes with the corpse being found in the synagogue cellars, etc. 

The Jews' response to this is "ve is beink poisecute!" They maintain that down through forty centuries of history, there has been a mammoth conspiracy to frame them for ritual murder. According to this theory, in places as far apart as Cochin China, medieval Germany, 1913 Kiev and 1970 Montreal, and among peoples as diverse as knightly Crusaders, Turkish sultans, twelfth-century Yorkshire Saxons, Argentinians, Cossacks, British historians, Renaissance Italian popes, assorted saints and sinners, the burgomeisters of Prague, and modern-day Arabs, there exists one big long, continuous plot periodically to murder small children, drain them of blood, and plant the bodies on Jewish premises or in Jewish vehicles, etc. 

That's one hell of a conspiracy! 

 There are other similar complaints always leveled against the Jews wherever and whenever they have gone---economic trickery and despoliation, refusal to assimilate, disloyalty to their host country, arrogant behavior and hatred against their hosts, etc. The Jewish response is always the same---for four thousand years, everybody in the world has been engaged in a collossal conspiracy to "get" them. Nowadays most people believe that, not suprising in view of the Jewish control of the media of communications which has existed in varying strengths in the Western world since the late nineteenth century. But in the old days it didn't wash. 

 Our medieval ancestors were not fools. They lived with the Jews side by side in close-packed urban communities, very small by modern standards, and knew the Jews far more intimately than we do today. Just like people today, they cared about their children and when a child was slain the entire community interested itself not only for purposes of revenge, but to ensure the safety of everyone's kids. We are asked to believe that time and again, insular communities who discovered they had a child-killer in their midst stubbornly refused to apprehend the alleged Gentile "real killers" and blamed the Jews out of religious bigotry. What possible interest could any community, medieval or otherwise, have in lynching an innocent scapegoat and allowing a real killer of children to go free? Why would everyone in Trier or Lincoln or Spoleto or Kiev go along with such a miscarriage of justice when doing so put other children at risk? Why (so far as we know) did the child-killings cease once the Jews had been punished and (usually) driven from the community? 

2. The Jewish religion allows for and practices animal sacrifice, per the Old Testament or Torah as they call it, although these customs have long been held in abeyance and in theory apply only to the Temple in Jerusalem. There is an entire sect of "Kohanim" in Israel who practice and train successive generations of rabbis in the techniques of sacrifice in anticipation of the day when Israel succeeds in wresting the Al Aqsa mosque away from the Muslims who have held it for 1400 years and rebuilds the Temple. The Talmud teaches that non-Jews are *goyim*, beasts without souls. To a religious Jew there is no difference between a German or an American or an African and a cow or a horse or a fish; all lesser non-Jewish forms of life, humanoid or otherwise, were put here by God to serve and pleasure the Jew. When the Jews claim that they do not practice "human" sacrifice they are by their own weird lights telling the truth. They do not consider Gentiles to be human. 

 3. For the past 25 years I have been in a unique position to observe Jewish behavior and the Jewish character at first hand, since being a National Socialist they don't bother to keep their usual variety of masks on with me and they let all that Talmudic hatred hang out. Anyone who has ever done night duty in a National Socialist headquarters and lifted the telephone for call after call, hour after hour, to hear the crazed screaming Brooklynese of a Jew driven mad by hatred, spewing a string of profanity and terms of excrement, raving like some demented parrot or monkey, totally out of all human control---thus begins wisdom. Anyone who wants to understand the true nature of this "Light Unto The Nations" need only oppose them in public, and he will soon find out what utterly loathsome beings the Jews are, what vicious and contemptible cowards they are, what potentially deadly serpents they are. 

 But don't take my word for it. Check out the Nizkor playgroups and see for yourself. See a Revisionist post a calm, serious, well-researched comment on some aspect of the Holocaust and then see the literally HUNDREDS of hysterical, malicious, hateful, filthy and abusive posts which follow from the little cadre of about two dozen kikes and kike wannabes who go berserk attacking, vilifying, insulting, and threatening anyone who dares to contradict the self-proclaimed Chosen People of God. 

I won't belabor this further, but I will close with two points: 

First off, the Jewish people are entirely capable of practicing ritual murder, and there is an immense amount of historical evidence that they did so. I cannot imagine why they would stop now in this day and age, when they have the power to conceal their misdeeds and the captive media falsely to portray them as victims. How many of those little children you see on milk cartons have fallen victim to the knives of the rabbis and lie buried in some remote wasteland or were ground up into dog food in some Jewish-owned processing plant? I am convinced that at least some of them met that fate. 

 Secondly, the Jews deserve everything that has happened to them in the past and everything that is coming to them in the future, especially when the Palestinians get their state as a toehold and America finally runs out of money and the New Yahk-Tel Aviv lifeline collapses. I do not question that innocent individuals of Jewish extraction have suffered down through the ages for crimes which they as individuals did not commit---but my people and all the peoples of the world have suffered far more at the hands of the Chosen Ones. 

The Jews are great survivors, got to give them that. Like rats and cockroaches, and like rats and cockroaches I doubt we'll ever get rid of them entirely. But the world is a much smaller place now, global village and all that. It used to be they could just move on to the next "Goldeneh Medina" when they wore out their welcome somewhere else---but they can't to that any more. Everybody knows about them now, from Uganda to Honolulu, from Rome to Regina. They've run out of trap doors to dodge through and run out of places to run and hide. Their much-vaunted Israel is going to end up nothing but a death trap. 

There is a reckoning coming, a reckoning between humanity and the Jewish people which will cause the very heavens to darken and the very devils in hell to hide their faces in shock and terror. You might say we owe them a Holocaust. We've been paying their bill for fifty years, and at some point we're finally going to get what we've paid for. 

 And when that day comes, who knows? Even I might pity them..... 


 -Winston Smith 

Comments on Above Text

by Gabriel, 

The "blood libel" is of course very famous (infamous) in Jewish history, and one can find a lot more on it in the Encyclopaedia Judaica. The "saint" described on this page fits a common pattern: Jews were supposed to be looking always for a child, always for the blood, to be used in making matzah. [One of the points I usually make is that pariah groups are always supposed to be a threat to the most helpless members of the major society: Gays, Jews, and Gypsies to children, and Blacks to "the flower of Southern womanhood."] One result is that Jewish communities in dangerous places and times are instructed by our authorities not to use red wine at Passover.

There was an interesting case brought during World War I by a Greek community (Christian) against the Jews of one of the Aegean coastal towns of Turkey. The (Muslim) judge ruled (correctly) that, since human flesh is not kosher, and that blood of *any* animal is specifically unkosher, the charge was preposterous. Still, as in the neo-Nazi quote above, and also as shows up in interviews with modern Poles in Lanzmann's film Shoah, people are still willing to believe that Jews did or do these things!

The neo-Nazi makes a very clever comment in that, since he is willing to acknowledge that the vast majority of Jews have no knowledge of such a practice, he makes it essentially impossible to disprove. I could as easily claim that there is a small clique of Catholics, or Hindus, or you-name-it, who worship UFOs and make animal sacrifices to them; none of the other Catholics or Hindus or whatever know about this, of course, so you can't disprove it just because you don't happen to be in on the it.

I always wonder, too, what Jews were supposed to have done before Christians came along, or for that matter why this supposed ritual should suddenly be "observed" (or claimed to be observed) during the Middle Ages, when the Passover itself had already been 2000 years old at that time!

German Version of the Judenstein Story

[DEUTSCHE SAGEN, herausgegeben von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm ]

Grimm's Tales, No. 353. 
From http://gutenberg.aol.de/maerchen/grimm/sagen/g353.htm

Der Judenstein

Im Jahre 1462 ist es zu Tirol im Dorfe Rinn geschehen, daß etliche Juden einen armen Bauer durch eine große Menge Geld dahin brachten, ihnen sein kleines Kind hinzugeben. Sie nahmen es mit hinaus in den Wald und marterten es dort auf einem großen Stein, seitdem der Judenstein genannt, auf die entsetzlichste Weise zu Tod. Den zerstochenen Leichnam hingen sie darnach an einen unfern einer Brücke stehenden Birkenbaum. Die Mutter des Kindes arbeitete gerade im Feld, als der Mord geschah; auf einmal kamen ihr Gedanken an ihr Kind, und ihr wurde, ohne daß sie wußte warum, so angst; indem fielen auch drei frische Blutstropfen nacheinander auf ihre Hand. Voll Herzensbangigkeit eilte sie heim und begehrte nach ihrem Kind. Der Mann zog sie in die Kammer, gestand, was er getan, und wollte ihr nun das schöne Geld zeigen, das sie aus aller Armut befreie, aber es war all in Laub verwandelt. Da ward der Vater wahnsinnig und grämte sich tot, aber die Mutter ging aus und suchte ihr Kindlein, und als sie es an dem Baum hängend gefunden, nahm sie es unter heißen Tränen herab und trug es in die Kirche nach Rinn. Noch jetzt liegt es dort und wird vom Volk als ein heiliges Kind betrachtet. Auch der Judenstein ist dorthin gebracht. Der Sage nach hieb ein Hirt den Baum ab, an dem das Kindlein gehangen, aber als er ihn nach Haus tragen wollte, brach er ein Bein und mußte daran sterben. 



A Quo Primum

Encyclical of Pope Benedict XIV promulgated on June 14, 1751.

To the Primate, Archbishops and Bishops, of the Kingdom of Poland.

Venerable Brothers, We give you Greeting and Our Apostolic Blessing.

God in his goodness allowed Catholicism to take root in Poland at the end of the tenth century during the reign of Our predecessor Leo VIII. At the time, the efforts of King Mieszko and his Christian consort Dobrava (Dlugosz, Annalium vestrorum Scriptorum, 2, 94) encouraged the spread of Christianity. Since then pious and devout Poles have continued the faithful practice of their new religion. During this time various sects have attempted to establish themselves in Poland and to spread the seeds of their errors, heresies, and evil opinions. But the faithful Polish people have strongly withstood their efforts.

We esteem the glorious memory of Polish martyrs, confessors, virgins and holy men; their exemplary lives are recorded in the holy annals of the Church. We also recall the many successful councils and synods which gloriously defeated the Lutherans who tried tenaciously, using a variety of methods, to establish a foothold and welcome in this kingdom. At that time indeed the great council of Piotrkow met under Our great predecessor and fellow citizen Gregory XIII, with prelate Lippomano, bishop of Verona and Apostolic nuncio, as its president. To the great glory of God it prohibited the principle of freedom of conscience; adherents of this principle were seeking to introduce and establish it in Poland. Another threat to Christians has been the influence of Jewish faithlessness; this influence was strong because Christians and Jews were living in the same cities and towns. However their influence was minimized because the Polish bishops did all they could to aid the Poles in their resistance to the Jews. What the bishops did is recorded in the large tome which contains the constitutions of the synods of the province of Gniezno. These facts establish most clearly and plainly the great glory which the Polish nation has won for its zeal in preserving the holy religion embraced by its ancestors so many ages before.

2. In regard to the matter of the Jews We must express our concern, which causes Us to cry aloud: "the best color has been changed." Our credible experts in Polish affairs and the citizens of Poland itself who communicated with Us have informed Us that the number of Jews in that country has greatly increased. In fact, some cities and towns which had been predominantly Christian are now practically devoid of Christians.

The Jews have so replaced the Christians that some parishes are about to lose their ministers because their revenue has dwindled so drastically. Because the Jews control businesses selling liquor and even wine, they are therefore allowed to supervise the collection of public revenues. They have also gained control of inns, bankrupt estates, villages and public land by means of which they have subjugated poor Christian farmers. The Jews are cruel taskmasters, not only working the farmers harshly and forcing them to carry excessive loads, but also whipping them for punishment. So it has come about that those poor farmers are the subjects of the Jews, submissive to their will and power. Furthermore, although the power to punish lies with the Christian official, he must comply with the commands of the Jews and inflict the punishments they desire. If he doesn't, he would lose his post. Therefore the tyrannical orders of the Jews have to be carried out.

3. In addition to the harm done to Christians in these regards, other unreasonable matters can result in even greater loss and danger. The most serious is that some households of the great have employed a Jew as "Superintendent-of-the-Household"; in this capacity, they not only administer domestic and economic matters, but they also ceaselessly exhibit and flaunt authority over the Christians they are living with. It is now even commonplace for Christians and Jews to intermingle anywhere. But what is even less comprehensible is that Jews fearlessly keep Christians of both sexes in their houses as their domestics, bound to their service. Furthermore, by means of their particular practice of commerce, they amass a great store of money and then by an exorbitant rate of interest utterly destroy the wealth and inheritance of Christians. Even if they borrow money from Christians at heavy and undue interest with their synagogues as surety, it is obvious to anyone who thinks about it that they do so to employ the money borrowed from Christians in their commercial dealings; this enables them to make enough profit to pay the agreed interest and simultaneously increase their own store. At the same time, they gain as many defenders of their synagogues and themselves as they have creditors.

4. The famous monk, Radulph, inspired long ago by an excess of zeal, was so inflamed against the Jews that he traversed Germany and France in the twelfth century and, by preaching against the Jews as the enemies of our holy religion, incited Christians to destroy them. This resulted in the deaths of a very large number of Jews. What must we think his deeds or thoughts would be if he were now alive and saw what was happening in Poland? But the great St. Bernard opposed this immoderate and maddened zeal of Radulph, and wrote to the clergy and people of eastern France: "The Jews are not to be persecuted: they are not to be slaughtered: they are not even to be driven out. Examine the divine writings concerning them. We read in the psalm a new kind of prophecy concerning the Jews: God has shown me, says the Church, on the subject of my enemies, not to slay them in case they should ever forget my people. Alive, however, they are eminent reminders for us of the Lord's suffering. On this account they are scattered through all lands in order that they may be witnesses to Our redemption while they pay the just penalties for so great a crime" (epistle 363). And he writes this to Henry, Archbishop of Mainz: "Doesn't the Church every day triumph more fully over the Jews in convicting or converting them than if once and for all she destroyed them with the edge of the sword: Surely it is not in vain that the Church has established the universal prayer which is offered up for the faithless Jews from the rising of the sun to its setting, that the Lord God may remove the veil from their hearts, that they may be rescued from their darkness into the light of truth. For unless it hoped that those who do not believe would believe, it would obviously be futile and empty to pray for them." (epistle 365).

5. Peter, abbot of Cluny, likewise wrote against Radulph to King Louis of France, and urged him not to allow the destruction of the Jews. But at the same time he encouraged him to punish their excesses and to strip them of the property they had taken from Christians or had acquired by usury; he should then devote the value of this to the use and benefit of holy religion, as may be seen in the Annals of Venerable Cardinal Baronius (1146). In this matter, as in all others, We adopt the same norm of action as did the Roman Pontiffs who were Our venerable predecessors. Alexander III forbade Christians under heavy penalties to accept permanent domestic service under Jews. "Let them not continually devote themselves to the service of Jews for a wage." He sets out the reason for this in the decretal Ad haec, de Judaeis. "Because Jewish ways do not harmonize in any way with ours and they could easily turn the minds of the simple to their own superstitions and faithlessness through continual intercourse and unceasing acquaintance." Innocent III, after saying that Jews were being received by Christians into their cities, warns that the method and condition of this reception should guard against their repaying the benefit with evildoing. "They on being admitted to our acquaintance in a spirit of mercy, repay us, the popular proverb says, as the mouse in the wallet, the snake in the lap and fire in the bosom usually repay their host." The same Pope stated that it was fitting for Jews to serve Christians rather than vice versa and added: "Let not the sons of the free woman be servants of the sons of the handmaid; but as servants rejected by their lord for whose death they evilly conspired, let them realize that the result of this deed is to make them servants of those whom Christ's death made free," as we read in his decretal Etsi Judaeos. Likewise in the decretal Cum sit nimis under the same heading de Judaeis, et Saracenis, he forbids the promotion of Jews to public office: "forbidding Jews to be promoted to public offices since in such circumstances they may be very dangerous to Christians." Innocent IV, also, in writing to St. Louis, King of France, who intended to drive the Jews beyond the boundaries of his kingdom, approves of this plan since the Jews gave very little heed to the regulations made by the Apostolic See in their regard: "Since We strive with all Our heart for the salvation of souls, We grant you full power by the authority of this letter to expel the Jews, particularly since We have learned that they do not obey the said statutes issued by this See against them" (Raynaldus, Annals, A.D. 1253, no. 34).

6. But if it is asked what matters the Apostolic See forbids to Jews living in the same cities as Christians, We will say that all those activities which are now allowed in Poland are forbidden; these We recounted above. There is no need of much reading to understand that this is the clear truth of the matter. It is enough to peruse decretals with the heading de Judaeis, et Saracenis; the constitutions of Our predecessors, the Roman Pontiffs Nicholas IV, Paul IV, St. Pius V, Gregory XIII and Clement VIII are readily available in the Roman Bullarium. To understand these matters most clearly, Venerable Brothers, you do not even need to read those. You will recall the statutes and prescripts of the synods of your predecessors; they always entered in their constitutions every measure concerning the Jews which was sanctioned and ordained by the Roman Pontiffs.

7. The essence of the difficulty, however, is that either the sanctions of the synods are forgotten or they are not put into effect. To you then, Venerable Brothers, passes the task of renewing those sanctions. The nature of your office requires that you carefully encourage their implementation. In this matter begin with the clergy, as is fair and reasonable. These will have to show others the right way to act, and light the way for the rest by their example. For in God's mercy, We hope that the good example of the clergy will lead the straying laity back to the straight path. You will be able to give these orders and commands easily and confidently, in that neither your property nor your privileges are hired to Jews; furthermore you do no business with them and you neither lend them money nor borrow from them. Thus, you will be free from and unaffected by all dealings with them.

8. The sacred canons, prescribe that in the most important cases, such as the present, censures should be imposed upon the recalcitrant; and that those cases which bode danger and ruin to religion should be reckoned as reserved cases in which only the bishop can give absolution. The Council of Trent considered your jurisdiction when it affirmed your right to reserve cases. It did not restrict such cases to public crimes only, but extended them to include more notorious and serious cases, provided they were not purely internal. But we have often said that some cases should be considered more notorious and serious. These are cases, to which men are more prone, which are a danger both to ecclesiastical discipline and to the salvation of the souls which have been entrusted to your episcopal care. We have discussed these at length in Our treatise On the diocesan synod, Book 5, 5.

9. In this matter We will help as much as possible. If you have to proceed against ecclesiastics exempt from your jurisdiction, you will doubtless encounter additional difficulties. Therefore We are giving Our Venerable Brother Archbishop Nicaenus, Our Nuncio there, a mandate appropriate for this business, in order that he may supply for you the necessary means from the powers entrusted to him. At the same time We promise you that when the situation arises, We will cooperate energetically and effectively with those whose combined authority and power are appropriate to remove this stain of shame from Poland. But first Venerable Brothers, ask aid from God, the source of all things. From Him beg help for Us and this Apostolic See. And while We embrace you in the fullness of charity, We lovingly impart to you, Our brothers, and to the flocks entrusted to your care, Our Apostolic Blessing.

Given at Castelgandolfo on the 14th of June 1751 in the eleventh year of Our Pontificate.


Andreas Oxner von Rinn 
auch: Anderl

 Gedenktag katholisch: 12. Juli

 Name bedeutet: der Mannhafte (griech.)

* 26. November 1459 in Rinn bei Innsbruck in Österreich 
† 12. Juli 1462 daselbst

Die Legende erzählt, wie der zweieinhalbjährige Andreas aus Rinn von fremden jüdischen Händlern aus dem Ort verschleppt und auf einem großen Stein - der seitdem Judenstein genannt wird - ermordet wurde, als seine Mutter bei der Feldarbeit weilte. Die Legende gehört in den Reigen der judenfeindlichen Legenden jener Zeit.

Der antijüdische Anderl-Kult bekam großen Aufschwung durch ein Buch des Haller Damenstiftsarztes Ippolito Guarinoni, der - angeregt vom Erfolg der Legende des Simon von Trient - 1642 den mehr als 150 Jahre zurückliegenden Märtyrertod des Tiroler Jungen behauptete; diese Biografie wurde Grundlage zahlreicher volkstümlicher Schauspiele. 1893 veröffentlichte der Wiener Geistliche Joseph Deckert das Traktat Vier Tiroler Kinder, Opfer des chassidischen Fanatismus, mit welchem er die Legende weiter am Leben halten und auch für die modernen Formen des Antisemitismus dienstbar machen wollte.

Andreas' Gebeine wurden 1475 erhoben und in der Pfarrkirche von Rinn bestattet. 1671 wurde an der Stelle seines angeblichen Martyriums über dem Judenstein bei Rinn eine neue Kirche erbaut und seine Reliquien wurden dorthin übertragen. Oft wurde der Kult zu antisemitischen Kundgebungen missbraucht.

Das inzwischen entfernte Wandgemälde in der in der Pfarrkirche in Rinn über den Mord an Andreas: „Sie schneiden dem Marterer die Gurgl ab und nehmen alles Blut von ihm„

Das inzwischen entfernte Wandgemälde in der in derPfarrkirche in Rinn über den Mord an Andreas: Sie schneiden dem Marterer die Gurgl ab und nehmen alles Blut von ihm 

 Kanonisation: Papst Benedikt XIV. genehmigte 1753 den Kult. 
Der Festtag wurde 1953 vom damaligen InnsbruckerBischof Paulus Rusch aus dem kirchlichen Kalender gestrichen. Die alljährlichen offiziellen Wallfahrtenfanden aber erst 1994 nach dem definitiven Verbot des Kultes rund um den Judenstein durch Bischof Stecher aus dem Jahr 1988 ein Ende. Schon 1985 hatte Bischof Stecher die Entfernung der angeblichen Gebeine vonAnderl aus dem Altar veranlasst, danach wurde auch das Wandbild in der Pfarrkirche in Rinn übermalt. Dennoch pilgern bis heute im Juli rund 300 Unentwegte zum Judenstein. Ort und Straße heißen noch immer so. 
 Attribute: Messer

 Die Judenstein-Sage der Brüder Grimm

 Andreas' Grab an der Pfarrkirche in Rinn bei Innsbruck Bilder aus Rinn und „Judenstein”



Der Jude im Dorn

Jakob und Wilhelm Grimm

Es war einmal ein reicher Mann, der hatte einen Knecht, der diente ihm fleißig und redlich, war alle Morgen der erste aus dem Bett und abends der letzte hinein, und wenns eine saure Arbeit gab, wo keiner anpacken wollte, so stellte er sich immer zuerst daran. Dabei klagte er nicht, sondern war mit allem zufrieden und war immer lustig. Als sein Jahr herum war, gab ihm der Herr keinen Lohn und dachte »das ist das Gescheitste, so spare ich etwas und er geht mir nicht weg, sondern bleibt hübsch im Dienst.« Der Knecht schwieg auch still, tat das zweite Jahr wie das erste seine Arbeit, und als er am Ende desselben abermals keinen Lohn bekam, ließ er sichs gefallen und blieb noch länger. Als auch das dritte Jahr herum war, bedachte sich der Herr, griff in die Tasche, holte aber nichts heraus. Da fing der Knecht endlich an und sprach »Herr, ich habe Euch drei Jahre redlich gedient, seid so gut und gebt mir, was mir von Rechts wegen zukommt: ich wollte fort und mich gerne weiter in der Welt umsehen.« Da antwortete der Geizhals »ja, mein lieber Knecht, du hast mir unverdrossen gedient, dafür sollst du mildiglich belohnet werden,« griff abermals in die Tasche und zählte dem Knecht drei Heller einzeln auf, »da hast du für jedes Jahr einen Heller, das ist ein großer und reichlicher Lohn, wie du ihn bei wenigen Herren empfangen hättest.« Der gute Knecht, der vom Geld wenig verstand, strich sein Kapital ein und dachte »nun hast du vollauf in der Tasche, was willst du sorgen und dich mit schwerer Arbeit länger plagen.« Da zog er fort, bergauf, bergab, sang und sprang nach Herzenslust. Nun trug es sich zu, als er an ein Buschwerk vorüberkam, daß ein kleines Männchen hervortrat und ihn anrief »wo hinaus, Bruder Lustig? ich sehe, du trägst nicht schwer an deinen Sorgen.« »Was soll ich traurig sein,« antwortete der Knecht, »ich habe vollauf, der Lohn von drei Jahren klingelt in meiner Tasche.« »Wieviel ist denn deines Schatzes?« fragte ihn das Männchen. »Wieviel? drei bare Heller, richtig gezählt.« »Höre,« sagte der Zwerg, »ich bin ein armer bedürftiger Mann, schenke mir deine drei Heller: ich kann nichts mehr arbeiten, du aber bist jung und kannst dir dein Brot leicht verdienen.« Und weil der Knecht ein gutes Herz hatte und Mitleid mit dem Männchen fühlte, so reichte er ihm seine drei Heller und sprach »in Gottes Namen, es wird mir doch nicht fehlen.« Da sprach das Männchen »weil ich dein gutes Herz sehe, so gewähre ich dir drei Wünsche, für jeden Heller einen, die sollen dir in Erfüllung gehen.« »Aha,« sprach der Knecht, »du bist einer, der blau pfeifen kann. Wohlan, wenns doch sein soll, so wünsche ich mir erstlich ein Vogelrohr, das alles trifft, wonach ich ziele; zweitens eine Fiedel, wenn ich darauf streiche, so muß alles tanzen, was den Klang hört; und drittens, wenn ich an jemand eine Bitte tue, so darf er sie nicht abschlagen.« »Das sollst du alles haben,« sprach das Männchen, griff in den Busch, und, denk einer, da lag schon Fiedel und Vogelrohr in Bereitschaft, als wenn sie bestellt wären. Er gab sie dem Knecht und sprach »was du dir immer erbitten wirst, kein Mensch auf der Welt soll dirs abschlagen.«

»Herz, was begehrst du nun?« sprach der Knecht zu sich selber und zog lustig weiter. Bald darauf begegnete er einem Juden mit einem langen Ziegenbart, der stand und horchte auf den Gesang eines Vogels, der hoch oben in der Spitze eines Baumes saß. »Gottes Wunder!« rief er aus, »so ein kleines Tier hat so eine grausam mächtige Stimme! wenns doch mein wäre! wer ihm doch Salz auf den Schwanz streuen könnte!« »Wenns weiter nichts ist,« sprach der Knecht, »der Vogel soll bald herunter sein,« legte an und traf aufs Haar, und der Vogel fiel herab in die Dornhecken. »Geh, Spitzbub,« sagte er zum Juden, »und hol dir den Vogel heraus.« »Mein,« sprach der Jude, »laß der Herr den Bub weg, so kommt ein Hund gelaufen; ich will mir den Vogel auflesen, weil Ihr ihn doch einmal getroffen habt,« legte sich auf die Erde und fing an, sich in den Busch hineinzuarbeiten. Wie er nun mitten in dem Dorn steckte, plagte der Mutwille den guten Knecht, daß er seine Fiedel abnahm und anfing zu geigen. Gleich fing auch der Jude an die Beine zu heben und in die Höhe zu springen: und je mehr der Knecht strich, desto besser ging der Tanz. Aber die Dörner zerrissen ihm den schäbigen Rock, kämmten ihm den Ziegenbart und stachen und zwickten ihn am ganzen Leib. »Mein,« rief der Jude, »was soll mir das Geigen! laß der Herr das Geigen, ich begehre nicht zu tanzen.« Aber der Knecht hörte nicht darauf und dachte »du hast die Leute genug geschunden, nun soll dirs die Dornhecke nicht besser machen,« und fing von neuem an zu geigen, daß der Jude immer höher aufspringen mußte, und die Fetzen von seinem Rock an den Stacheln hängen blieben. »Au weih geschrien!« rief der Jude, »geb ich doch dem Herrn, was er verlangt, wenn er nur das Geigen läßt, einen ganzen Beutel mit Gold.« »Wenn du so spendabel bist,« sprach der Knecht, »so will ich wohl mit meiner Musik aufhören, aber das muß ich dir nachrühmen, du machst deinen Tanz noch mit, daß es eine Art hat;« nahm darauf den Beutel und ging seiner Wege.

Der Jude blieb stehen und sah ihm nach und war still, bis der Knecht weit weg und ihm ganz aus den Augen war, dann schrie er aus Leibeskräften »du miserabler Musikant, du Bierfiedler: wart, wenn ich dich allein erwische! ich will dich jagen, daß du die Schuhsohlen verlieren sollst; du Lump, steck einen Groschen ins Maul, daß du sechs Heller wert bist,« und schimpfte weiter, was er nur losbringen konnte. Und als er sich damit etwas zugute getan und Luft gemacht hatte, lief er in die Stadt zum Richter. »Herr Richter, au weih geschrien! seht, wie mich auf offener Landstraße ein gottloser Mensch beraubt und übel zugerichtet hat: ein Stein auf dem Erdboden möcht sich erbarmen: die Kleider zerfetzt! der Leib zerstochen und zerkratzt! mein bißchen Armut samt dem Beutel genommen! lauter Dukaten, ein Stück schöner als das andere: um Gotteswillen, laßt den Menschen ins Gefängnis werfen.« Sprach der Richter »wars ein Soldat, der dich mit seinem Säbel so zugerichtet hat?« »Gott bewahr!« sagte der Jude, »einen nackten Degen hat er nicht gehabt, aber ein Rohr hat er gehabt auf dem Buckel hängen und eine Geige am Hals; der Bösewicht ist leicht zu erkennen.« Der Richter schickte seine Leute nach ihm aus, die fanden den guten Knecht, der ganz langsam weitergezogen war, und fanden auch den Beutel mit Gold bei ihm. Als er vor Gericht gestellt wurde, sagte er »ich habe den Juden nicht angerührt und ihm das Geld nicht genommen, er hat mirs aus freien Stücken angeboten, damit ich nur aufhörte zu geigen, weil er meine Musik nicht vertragen konnte.« »Gott bewahr!« schrie der Jude, »der greift die Lügen wie Fliegen an der Wand.« Aber der Richter glaubte es auch nicht und sprach »das ist eine schlechte Entschuldigung, das tut kein Jude,« und verurteilte den guten Knecht, weil er auf offener Straße einen Raub begangen hätte, zum Galgen. Als er aber abgeführt ward, schrie ihm noch der Jude zu »du Bärenhäuter, du Hundemusikant, jetzt kriegst du deinen wohlverdienten Lohn.« Der Knecht stieg ganz ruhig mit dem Henker die Leiter hinauf, auf der letzten Sprosse aber drehte er sich um und sprach zum Richter »gewährt mir noch eine Bitte, eh ich sterbe.« »Ja,« sprach der Richter, »wenn du nicht um dein Leben bittest.« »Nicht ums Leben,« antwortete der Knecht, »ich bitte, laßt mich zu guter Letzt noch einmal auf meiner Geige spielen.« Der Jude erhob ein Zetergeschrei »um Gotteswillen, erlaubts nicht, erlaubts nicht.« Allein der Richter sprach »warum soll ich ihm die kurze Freude nicht gönnen: es ist ihm zugestanden, und dabei soll es sein Bewenden haben.« Auch konnte er es ihm nicht abschlagen wegen der Gabe, die dem Knecht verliehen war. Der Jude aber rief »au weih! au weih! bindet mich an, bindet mich fest.« Da nahm der gute Knecht seine Geige vom Hals, legte sie zurecht, und wie er den ersten Strich tat, fing alles an zu wabern und zu wanken, der Richter, die Schreiber und die Gerichtsdiener: und der Strick fiel dem aus der Hand, der den Juden festbinden wollte: beim zweiten Strich hoben alle die Beine, und der Henker ließ den guten Knecht los und machte sich zum Tanze fertig: bei dem dritten Strich sprang alles in die Höhe und fing an zu tanzen, und der Richter und der Jude waren vorn und sprangen am besten. Bald tanzte alles mit, was auf den Markt aus Neugierde herbeigekommen war, alte und junge, dicke und magere Leute untereinander: sogar die Hunde, die mitgelaufen waren, setzten sich auf die Hinterfüße und hüpften mit. Und je länger er spielte, desto höher sprangen die Tänzer, daß sie sich einander an die Köpfe stießen und anfingen jämmerlich zu schreien. Endlich rief der Richter ganz außer Atem »ich schenke dir dein Leben, höre nur auf zu geigen.« Der gute Knecht ließ sich bewegen, setzte die Geige ab, hing sie wieder um den Hals und stieg die Leiter herab. Da trat er zu dem Juden, der auf der Erde lag und nach Atem schnappte, und sagte »Spitzbube, jetzt gesteh, wo du das Geld her hast, oder ich nehme meine Geige vom Hals und fange wieder an zu spielen.« »Ich habs gestohlen, ich habs gestohlen,« schrie er, »du aber hasts redlich verdient.« Da ließ der Richter den Juden zum Galgen führen und als einen Dieb aufhängen.

Grimm: Der Jude im Dorn

The Jew in the Thorns

Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm

Once upon a time there was a rich man who had a servant who served him diligently and honestly. Every morning he was the first one out of bed, and at night the last one to go to bed. Whenever there was a difficult job that nobody wanted to do, he was always the first to volunteer. He never complained at any of this, but was contented with everything and always happy.

When his year was over, his master gave him no wages, thinking, "That is the smartest thing to do, for it will save me something. He won't leave me, but will gladly stay here working for me."

The servant said nothing, but did his work the second year as he had done before, and when at the end of this year he again received no wages, he still stayed on without complaining. When the third year had passed, the master thought it over, then put his hand into his pocket, but pulled out nothing.

However, this time the servant said, "Master, I have served you honestly for three years. Be so good as to give me what by rights I have coming to me. I would like to be on my way and see something else of the world."

"Yes, my good servant," answered the old miser, "you have served me without complaint, and you shall be kindly rewarded."

With this he put his hand into his pocket, then counted out three hellers one at a time, saying, "There, you have a heller for each year. That is a large and generous reward. Only a few masters would pay you this much."

The good servant, who understood little about money, put his wealth into his pocket, and thought, "Ah, now that I have a full purse, why should I worry and continue to plague myself with hard work?"

So he set forth, uphill and down, singing and jumping for joy.

Now it came to pass that as he was passing by a thicket a little dwarf stepped out, and called to him, "Where are you headed, Brother Merry? You don't seem to be burdened down with cares."

"Why should I be sad?" answered the servant. "I have everything I need. Three years' wages are jingling in my pocket.

"How much is your treasure?" the dwarf asked him.

"How much? Three hellers in real money, precisely counted."

"Listen," said the dwarf, "I am a poor and needy man. Give me your three hellers. I can no longer work, but you are young and can easily earn your bread."

Now because the servant had a good heart and felt pity for the dwarf, he gave him his three hellers, saying, "In God's name, I won't miss them."

Then the dwarf said, "Because I see that you have a good heart I will grant you three wishes, one for each heller. They shall all be fulfilled."

"Aha," said the servant. "You are a miracle worker. Well, then, if it is to be so, first of all I wish for a blowpipe that will hit everything I aim at; second, for a fiddle, that when I play it, anyone who hears it will have to dance; and third, that whenever I ask a favor of anyone, it will be granted."

"You shall have all that," said the dwarf. He reached into the bush, and what do you think, there lay a fiddle and a blowpipe, all ready, just as if they had been ordered. He gave them to the servant, saying, "No one will ever be able to deny any request that you might make."

"What more could my heart desire?" said the servant to himself, and went merrily on his way.

Soon afterward he met a Jew with a long goatee, who was standing listening to a bird singing high up in the top of a tree.

"One of God's own miracles," he shouted, "that such a small creature should have such a fearfully loud voice. If only it were mine! If only someone would sprinkle some salt on its tail!"

"If that is all you want," said the servant, "then the bird shall soon be down here." He took aim, hit it precisely, and the bird fell down into a thorn hedge.

"Rogue," he said to the Jew, "Go and fetch the bird out for yourself."

"My goodness," said the Jew, "don't call me a rogue, sir, but I will be the dog and get the bird out for myself. After all, you're the one who shot it."

Then he lay down on the ground and began crawling into the thicket. When he was in the middle of the thorns, the good servant could not resist the temptation to pick up his fiddle and begin to play.

The Jew's legs immediately began to move, and he jumped up. The more the servant fiddled the better went the dance. However, the thorns ripped apart the Jew's shabby coat, combed his beard, and pricked and pinched him all over his body.

"My goodness," cried the Jew, "what do I want with your fiddling? Stop playing, sir. I don't want to dance."

But the servant did not listen to him, and thought, "You have fleeced people often enough, and now the thorn hedge shall do the same to you." He began to play all over again, so that the Jew had to jump even higher, leaving scraps from his coat hanging on the thorns.

"Oh, woe is me!" cried the Jew. "I will give the gentleman anything he asks, if only he quits fiddling, even a purse filled with gold."

"If you are so generous," said the servant, "then I will stop my music. But I must praise the singular way that you dance to it." Then he took his purse he went on his way.

The Jew stood there quietly watching the servant until he was far off and out of sight, and then he screamed out with all his might, "You miserable musician, you beer-house fiddler! Wait until I catch you alone. I will chase you until you wear the soles off your shoes. You ragamuffin, just put a groschen in your mouth, so that you will be worth six hellers." He continued to curse as fast as he could speak. As soon as he had thus refreshed himself a little, and caught his breath again, he ran into the town to the judge.

"Judge, sir," he said, "Oh, woe is me! See how a godless man has robbed me and abused me on the open road. A stone on the ground would feel sorry for me. My clothes are ripped into shreds. My body is pricked and scratched to pieces. And what little I owned has been taken away with my purse -- genuine ducats, each piece more beautiful than the others. For God's sake, let the man be thrown into prison."

The judge asked, "Was it a soldier who cut you up like that with his saber?"

"God forbid," said the Jew. "He didn't have a naked dagger, but rather a blowpipe hanging from his back, and a fiddle from his neck. The scoundrel can easily be recognized."

The judge sent his people out after him. They found the good servant, who had been walking along quite slowly. And they found the purse with the money on him as well.

When he was brought before the judge he said, "I did not touch the Jew, nor take his money. He offered it to me freely, so that I would stop fiddling, because he could not stand my music."

"God forbid!" cried the Jew. "He is reaching for lies like flies on the wall."

The judge did not believe his story, and said, "That is a poor excuse. No Jew would do that." And because he had committed robbery on the open road, the good servant was sentenced to the gallows.

As he was being led away, the Jew screamed after him, "You good-for-nothing. You dog of a musician. Now you will receive your well earned reward."

The servant walked quietly up the ladder with the hangman, but on the last rung he turned around and said to the judge, "Grant me just one request before I die."

"Yes," said the judge, "if you do not ask for your life."

"I do not ask for life," answered the servant, "but let me play my fiddle one last time."

The Jew cried out miserably, "For God's sake, do not allow it! Do not allow it!"

But the judge said, "Why should I not grant him this short pleasure? It has been promised to him, and he shall have it." In any event, he could not have refused because of the gift that had been bestowed on the servant.

The Jew cried, "Oh, woe is me! Tie me up. Tie me up tightly."

The good servant took his fiddle from his neck, and made ready. As he played the first stroke, they all began to quiver and shake: the judge, the clerks, and the court officials. The rope fell out of the hand of the one who was going to tie up the Jew.

At the second stroke they all lifted their legs. The hangman released the good servant and made ready to dance.

At the third stroke everyone jumped up and began to dance. The judge and the Jew were out in front and were the best at jumping. Soon everyone who had gathered in the marketplace out of curiosity was dancing with them, old and young, fat and thin, all together with each other. Even the dogs that had run along with the crowd stood up on their hind legs and hopped along as well. The longer he played, the higher the dancers jumped, until they were knocking their heads together and crying out terribly.

Finally the judge, quite out of breath, shouted, "I will give you your life, but just stop fiddling."

The good servant listened to this, then took his fiddle, hung it around his neck again, and climbed down the ladder. He went up to the Jew, who was lying upon the ground gasping for air, and said, "You rogue, now confess where you got the money, or I will take my fiddle off my neck and begin to play again."

"I stole it. I stole it," he cried. "But you have honestly earned it."

With that the judge had the Jew led to the gallows and hanged as a thief.


Jonathan Bowden

Jonathan Bowden's Last Words? (Or Mine?)


"To be honest, had I seen this news in the past, I would have been filled with righteous indignation. But since I've developed a mental disorder, this cunt of an island can belong to whomever, and I don’t care, because it has fuck all to do with me. I still have a huge pile of housing debt and medical expenses to deal with, so motherfucking fuck off."

Richard Wagner's Last Words:

„Meine Uhr!‟

"My watch!"

[* http://tieba.baidu.com/p/1542235939]




1. Germania omnis a Gallis Raetisque et Pannoniis Rheno et Danuvio fluminibus, a Sarmatis Dacisque mutuo metu aut montibus separatur: cetera Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum inmensa spatia complectens, nuper cognitis quibusdam gentibus ac regibus, quos bellum aperuit. Rhenus, Raeticarum Alpium inaccesso ac praecipiti vertice ortus, modico flexu in occidentem versus septentrionali Oceano miscetur. Danuvius molli et clementer edito montis Abnobae iugo effusus pluris populos adit, donec in Ponticum mare sex meatibus erumpat: septimum os paludibus hauritur.

2. Ipsos Germanos indigenas crediderim minimeque aliarum gentium adventibus et hospitiis mixtos, quia nec terra olim, sed classibus advehebantur qui mutare sedes quaerebant, et inmensus ultra utque sic dixerim adversus Oceanus raris ab orbe nostro navibus aditur. Quis porro, praeter periculum horridi et ignoti maris, Asia aut Africa aut Italia relicta Germaniam peteret, informem terris, asperam caelo, tristem cultu adspectuque, nisi si patria sit?

Celebrant carminibus antiquis, quod unum apud illos memoriae et annalium genus est, Tuistonem deum terra editum. Ei filium Mannum, originem gentis conditoremque, Manno tris filios adsignant, e quorum nominibus proximi Oceano Ingaevones, medii Herminones, ceteri Istaevones vocentur. Quidam, ut in licentia vetustatis, pluris deo ortos plurisque gentis appellationes, Marsos Gambrivios Suebos Vandilios adfirmant, eaque vera et antiqua nomina. Ceterum Germaniae vocabulum recens et nuper additum, quoniam qui primi Rhenum transgressi Gallos expulerint ac nunc Tungri, tunc Germani vocati sint: ita nationis nomen, non gentis evaluisse paulatim, ut omnes primum a victore ob metum, mox etiam a se ipsis, invento nomine Germani vocarentur.

3. Fuisse apud eos et Herculem memorant, primumque omnium virorum fortium ituri in proelia canunt. Sunt illis haec quoque carmina, quorum relatu, quem barditum vocant, accendunt animos futuraeque pugnae fortunam ipso cantu augurantur. Terrent enim trepidantve, prout sonuit acies, nec tam vocis ille quam virtutis concentus videtur. Adfectatur praecipue asperitas soni et fractum murmur, obiectis ad os scutis, quo plenior et gravior vox repercussu intumescat. Ceterum et Ulixen quidam opinantur longo illo et fabuloso errore in hunc Oceanum delatum adisse Germaniae terras, Asciburgiumque, quod in ripa Rheni situm hodieque incolitur, ab illo constitutum nominatumque; aram quin etiam Ulixi consecratam, adiecto Laertae patris nomine, eodem loco olim repertam, monumentaque et tumulos quosdam Graecis litteris inscriptos in confinio Germaniae Raetiaeque adhuc exstare. Quae neque confirmare argumentis neque refellere in animo est: ex ingenio suo quisque demat vel addat fidem.

4. Ipse eorum opinionibus accedo, qui Germaniae populos nullis aliis aliarum nationum conubiis infectos propriam et sinceram et tantum sui similem gentem exstitisse arbitrantur. Unde habitus quoque corporum, tamquam in tanto hominum numero, idem omnibus: truces et caerulei oculi, rutilae comae, magna corpora et tantum ad impetum valida: laboris atque operum non eadem patientia, minimeque sitim aestumque tolerare, frigora atque inediam caelo solove adsueverunt.

5. Terra etsi aliquanto specie differt, in universum tamen aut silvis horrida aut paludibus foeda, umidior qua Gallias, ventosior qua Noricum ac Pannoniam adspicit; satis ferax, frugiferarum arborum inpatiens, pecorum fecunda, sed plerumque improcera. Ne armentis quidem suus honor aut gloria frontis: numero gaudent, eaeque solae et gratissimae opes sunt. Argentum et aurum propitiine an irati di negaverint dubito. Nec tamen adfirmaverim nullam Germaniae venam argentum aurumve gignere: quis enim scrutatus est? Possessione et usu haud perinde adficiuntur. Est videre apud illos argentea vasa, legatis et principibus eorum muneri data, non in alia vilitate quam quae humo finguntur; quamquam proximi ob usum commerciorum aurum et argentum in pretio habent formasque quasdam nostrae pecuniae adgnoscunt atque eligunt. Interiores simplicius et antiquius permutatione mercium utuntur. Pecuniam probant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. Argentum quoque magis quam aurum sequuntur, nulla adfectione animi, sed quia numerus argenteorum facilior usui est promiscua ac vilia mercantibus.

6. Ne ferrum quidem superest, sicut ex genere telorum colligitur. Rari gladiis aut maioribus lanceis utuntur: hastas vel ipsorum vocabulo frameas gerunt angusto et brevi ferro, sed ita acri et ad usum habili, ut eodem telo, prout ratio poscit, vel comminus vel eminus pugnent. Et eques quidem scuto frameaque contentus est; pedites et missilia spargunt, pluraque singuli, atque in inmensum vibrant, nudi aut sagulo leves. Nulla cultus iactatio; scuta tantum lectissimis coloribus distinguunt. Paucis loricae, vix uni alterive cassis aut galea. Equi non forma, non velocitate conspicui. Sed nec variare gyros in morem nostrum docentur: in rectum aut uno flexu dextros agunt, ita coniuncto orbe, ut nemo posterior sit. In universum aestimanti plus penes peditem roboris; eoque mixti proeliantur, apta et congruente ad equestrem pugnam velocitate peditum, quos ex omni iuventute delectos ante aciem locant. Definitur et numerus; centeni ex singulis pagis sunt, idque ipsum inter suos vocantur, et quod primo numerus fuit, iam nomen et honor est. Acies per cuneos componitur. Cedere loco, dummodo rursus instes, consilii quam formidinis arbitrantur. Corpora suorum etiam in dubiis proeliis referunt. Scutum reliquisse praecipuum flagitium, nec aut sacris adesse aut concilium inire ignominioso fas; multique superstites bellorum infamiam laqueo finierunt.

7. Reges ex nobilitate, duces ex virtute sumunt. Nec regibus infinita aut libera potestas, et duces exemplo potius quam imperio, si prompti, si conspicui, si ante aciem agant, admiratione praesunt. Ceterum neque animadvertere neque vincire, ne verberare quidem nisi sacerdotibus permissum, non quasi in poenam nec ducis iussu, sed velut deo imperante, quem adesse bellantibus credunt. Effigiesque et signa quaedam detracta lucis in proelium ferunt; quodque praecipuum fortitudinis incitamentum est, non casus, nec fortuita conglobatio turmam aut cuneum facit, sed familiae et propinquitates; et in proximo pignora, unde feminarum ululatus audiri, unde vagitus infantium. Hi cuique sanctissimi testes, hi maximi laudatores. Ad matres, ad coniuges vulnera ferunt; nec illae numerare aut exigere plagas pavent, cibosque et hortamina pugnantibus gestant.

8. Memoriae proditur quasdam acies inclinatas iam et labantes a feminis restitutas constantia precum et obiectu pectorum et monstrata comminus captivitate, quam longe inpatientius feminarum suarum nomine timent, adeo ut efficacius obligentur animi civitatum, quibus inter obsides puellae quoque nobiles imperantur. Inesse quin etiam sanctum aliquid et providum putant, nec aut consilia earum aspernantur aut responsa neglegunt. Vidimus sub divo Vespasiano Veledam diu apud plerosque numinis loco habitam; sed et olim Albrunam et compluris alias venerati sunt, non adulatione nec tamquam facerent deas.

9. Deorum maxime Mercurium colunt, cui certis diebus humanis quoque hostiis litare fas habent. Herculem et Martem concessis animalibus placant. Pars Sueborum et Isidi sacrificat: unde causa et origo peregrino sacro, parum comperi, nisi quod signum ipsum in modum liburnae figuratum docet advectam religionem. Ceterum nec cohibere parietibus deos neque in ullam humani oris speciem adsimulare ex magnitudine caelestium arbitrantur: lucos ac nemora consecrant deorumque nominibus appellant secretum illud, quod sola reverentia vident.

10. Auspicia sortesque ut qui maxime observant: sortium consuetudo simplex. Virgam frugiferae arbori decisam in surculos amputant eosque notis quibusdam discretos super candidam vestem temere ac fortuito spargunt. Mox, si publice consultetur, sacerdos civitatis, sin privatim, ipse pater familiae, precatus deos caelumque suspiciens ter singulos tollit, sublatos secundum impressam ante notam interpretatur. Si prohibuerunt, nulla de eadem re in eundem diem consultatio; sin permissum, auspiciorum adhuc fides exigitur. Et illud quidem etiam hic notum, avium voces volatusque interrogare; proprium gentis equorum quoque praesagia ac monitus experiri. Publice aluntur isdem nemoribus ac lucis, candidi et nullo mortali opere contacti; quos pressos sacro curru sacerdos ac rex vel princeps civitatis comitantur hinnitusque ac fremitus observant. Nec ulli auspicio maior fides, non solum apud plebem, sed apud proceres, apud sacerdotes; se enim ministros deorum, illos conscios putant. Est et alia observatio auspiciorum, qua gravium bellorum eventus explorant. Eius gentis, cum qua bellum est, captivum quoquo modo interceptum cum electo popularium suorum, patriis quemque armis, committunt: victoria huius vel illius pro praeiudicio accipitur.

11. De minoribus rebus principes consultant; de maioribus omnes, ita tamen, ut ea quoque, quorum penes plebem arbitrium est, apud principes pertractentur. Coeunt, nisi quid fortuitum et subitum incidit, certis diebus, cum aut incohatur luna aut impletur; nam agendis rebus hoc auspicatissimum initium credunt. Nec dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium computant. Sic constituunt, sic condicunt: nox ducere diem videtur. Illud ex libertate vitium, quod non simul nec ut iussi conveniunt, sed et alter et tertius dies cunctatione coeuntium absumitur. Ut turbae placuit, considunt armati. Silentium per sacerdotes, quibus tum et coercendi ius est, imperatur. Mox rex vel princeps, prout aetas cuique, prout nobilitas, prout decus bellorum, prout facundia est, audiuntur, auctoritate suadendi magis quam iubendi potestate. Si displicuit sententia, fremitu aspernantur; sin placuit, frameas concutiunt. Honoratissimum adsensus genus est armis laudare.

12. Licet apud concilium accusare quoque et discrimen capitis intendere. Distinctio poenarum ex delicto. Proditores et transfugas arboribus suspendunt, ignavos et imbelles et corpore infames caeno ac palude, iniecta insuper crate, mergunt. Diversitas supplicii illuc respicit, tamquam scelera ostendi oporteat, dum puniuntur, flagitia abscondi. Sed et levioribus delictis pro modo poena: equorum pecorumque numero convicti multantur. Pars multae regi vel civitati, pars ipsi, qui vindicatur, vel propinquis eius exsolvitur. Eliguntur in isdem conciliis et principes, qui iura per pagos vicosque reddunt; centeni singulis ex plebe comites consilium simul et auctoritas adsunt.

13. Nihil autem neque publicae neque privatae rei nisi armati agunt. Sed arma sumere non ante cuiquam moris, quam civitas suffecturum probaverit. Tum in ipso concilio vel principum aliquis vel pater vel propinqui scuto frameaque iuvenem ornant: haec apud illos toga, hic primus iuventae honos; ante hoc domus pars videntur, mox rei publicae. Insignis nobilitas aut magna patrum merita principis dignationem etiam adulescentulis adsignant: ceteris robustioribus ac iam pridem probatis adgregantur, nec rubor inter comites adspici. Gradus quin etiam ipse comitatus habet, iudicio eius quem sectantur; magnaque et comitum aemulatio, quibus primus apud principem suum locus, et principum, cui plurimi et acerrimi comites. Haec dignitas, hae vires, magno semper et electorum iuvenum globo circumdari, in pace decus, in bello praesidium. Nec solum in sua gente cuique, sed apud finitimas quoque civitates id nomen, ea gloria est, si numero ac virtute comitatus emineat; expetuntur enim legationibus et muneribus ornantur et ipsa plerumque fama bella profligant.

14. Cum ventum in aciem, turpe principi virtute vinci, turpe comitatui virtutem principis non adaequare. Iam vero infame in omnem vitam ac probrosum superstitem principi suo ex acie recessisse. Illum defendere, tueri, sua quoque fortia facta gloriae eius adsignare praecipuum sacramentum est. Principes pro victoria pugnant, comites pro principe. Si civitas, in qua orti sunt, longa pace et otio torpeat, plerique nobilium adulescentium petunt ultro eas nationes, quae tum bellum aliquod gerunt, quia et ingrata genti quies et facilius inter ancipitia clarescunt magnumque comitatum non nisi vi belloque tueare; exigunt enim principis sui liberalitate illum bellatorem equum, illam cruentam victricemque frameam. Nam epulae et quamquam incompti, largi tamen apparatus pro stipendio cedunt. Materia munificentiae per bella et raptus. Nec arare terram aut exspectare annum tam facile persuaseris quam vocare hostem et vulnera mereri. Pigrum quin immo et iners videtur sudore adquirere quod possis sanguine parare.

15. Quotiens bella non ineunt, non multum venatibus, plus per otium transigunt, dediti somno ciboque, fortissimus quisque ac bellicosissimus nihil agens, delegata domus et penatium et agrorum cura feminis senibusque et infirmissimo cuique ex familia; ipsi hebent, mira diversitate naturae, cum idem homines sic ament inertiam et oderint quietem. Mos est civitatibus ultro ac viritim conferre principibus vel armentorum vel frugum, quod pro honore acceptum etiam necessitatibus subvenit. Gaudent praecipue finitimarum gentium donis, quae non modo a singulis, sed et publice mittuntur, electi equi, magna arma, phalerae torquesque; iam et pecuniam accipere docuimus.

16. Nullas Germanorum populis urbes habitari satis notum est, ne pati quidem inter se iunctas sedes. Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus placuit. Vicos locant non in nostrum morem conexis et cohaerentibus aedificiis: suam quisque domum spatio circumdat, sive adversus casus ignis remedium sive inscitia aedificandi. Ne caementorum quidem apud illos aut tegularum usus: materia ad omnia utuntur informi et citra speciem aut delectationem. Quaedam loca diligentius inlinunt terra ita pura ac splendente, ut picturam ac lineamenta colorum imitetur. Solent et subterraneos specus aperire eosque multo insuper fimo onerant, suffugium hiemis et receptaculum frugibus, quia rigorem frigorum eius modi loci molliunt, et si quando hostis advenit, aperta populatur, abdita autem et defossa aut ignorantur aut eo ipso fallunt, quod quaerenda sunt.

17. Tegumen omnibus sagum fibula aut, si desit, spina consertum: cetera intecti totos dies iuxta focum atque ignem agunt. Locupletissimi veste distinguuntur, non fluitante, sicut Sarmatae ac Parthi, sed stricta et singulos artus exprimente. Gerunt et ferarum pelles, proximi ripae neglegenter, ulteriores exquisitius, ut quibus nullus per commercia cultus. Eligunt feras et detracta velamina spargunt maculis pellibusque beluarum, quas exterior Oceanus atque ignotum mare gignit. Nec alius feminis quam viris habitus, nisi quod feminae saepius lineis amictibus velantur eosque purpura variant, partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non extendunt, nudae brachia ac lacertos; sed et proxima pars pectoris patet.

18. Quamquam severa illic matrimonia, nec ullam morum partem magis laudaveris. Nam prope soli barbarorum singulis uxoribus contenti sunt, exceptis admodum paucis, qui non libidine, sed ob nobilitatem plurimis nuptiis ambiuntur. Dotem non uxor marito, sed uxori maritus offert. Intersunt parentes et propinqui ac munera probant, munera non ad delicias muliebres quaesita nec quibus nova nupta comatur, sed boves et frenatum equum et scutum cum framea gladioque. In haec munera uxor accipitur, atque in vicem ipsa armorum aliquid viro adfert: hoc maximum vinculum, haec arcana sacra, hos coniugales deos arbitrantur. Ne se mulier extra virtutum cogitationes extraque bellorum casus putet, ipsis incipientis matrimonii auspiciis admonetur venire se laborum periculorumque sociam, idem in pace, idem in proelio passuram ausuramque. Hoc iuncti boves, hoc paratus equus, hoc data arma denuntiant. Sic vivendum, sic pereundum: accipere se, quae liberis inviolata ac digna reddat, quae nurus accipiant, rursusque ad nepotes referantur.

19. Ergo saepta pudicitia agunt, nullis spectaculorum inlecebris, nullis conviviorum inritationibus corruptae. Litterarum secreta viri pariter ac feminae ignorant. Paucissima in tam numerosa gente adulteria, quorum poena praesens et maritis permissa: abscisis crinibus nudatam coram propinquis expellit domo maritus ac per omnem vicum verbere agit; publicatae enim pudicitiae nulla venia: non forma, non aetate, non opibus maritum invenerit. Nemo enim illic vitia ridet, nec corrumpere et corrumpi saeculum vocatur. Melius quidem adhuc eae civitates, in quibus tantum virgines nubunt et eum spe votoque uxoris semel transigitur. Sic unum accipiunt maritum quo modo unum corpus unamque vitam, ne ulla cogitatio ultra, ne longior cupiditas, ne tamquam maritum, sed tamquam matrimonium ament. Numerum liberorum finire aut quemquam ex adgnatis necare flagitium habetur, plusque ibi boni mores valent quam alibi bonae leges.

20. In omni domo nudi ac sordidi in hos artus, in haec corpora, quae miramur, excrescunt. Sua quemque mater uberibus alit, nec ancillis ac nutricibus delegantur. Dominum ac servum nullis educationis deliciis dignoscas: inter eadem pecora, in eadem humo degunt, donec aetas separet ingenuos, virtus adgnoscat. Sera iuvenum venus, eoque inexhausta pubertas. Nec virgines festinantur; eadem iuventa, similis proceritas: pares validaeque miscentur, ac robora parentum liberi referunt. Sororum filiis idem apud avunculum qui ad patrem honor. Quidam sanctiorem artioremque hunc nexum sanguinis arbitrantur et in accipiendis obsidibus magis exigunt, tamquam et animum firmius et domum latius teneant. Heredes tamen successoresque sui cuique liberi, et nullum testamentum. Si liberi non sunt, proximus gradus in possessione fratres, patrui, avunculi. Quanto plus propinquorum, quanto maior adfinium numerus, tanto gratiosior senectus; nec ulla orbitatis pretia.

21. Suscipere tam inimicitias seu patris seu propinqui quam amicitias necesse est; nec implacabiles durant: luitur enim etiam homicidium certo armentorum ac pecorum numero recipitque satisfactionem universa domus, utiliter in publicum, quia periculosiores sunt inimicitiae iuxta libertatem.

Convictibus et hospitiis non alia gens effusius indulget. Quemcumque mortalium arcere tecto nefas habetur; pro fortuna quisque apparatis epulis excipit. Cum defecere, qui modo hospes fuerat, monstrator hospitii et comes; proximam domum non invitati adeunt. Nec interest: pari humanitate accipiuntur. Notum ignotumque quantum ad ius hospitis nemo discernit. Abeunti, si quid poposcerit, concedere moris; et poscendi in vicem eadem facilitas. Gaudent muneribus, sed nec data imputant nec acceptis obligantur: victus inter hospites comis.

22. Statim e somno, quem plerumque in diem extrahunt, lavantur, saepius calida, ut apud quos plurimum hiems occupat. Lauti cibum capiunt: separatae singulis sedes et sua cuique mensa. Tum ad negotia nec minus saepe ad convivia procedunt armati. Diem noctemque continuare potando nulli probrum. Crebrae, ut inter vinolentos, rixae raro conviciis, saepius caede et vulneribus transiguntur. Sed et de reconciliandis in vicem inimicis et iungendis adfinitatibus et adsciscendis principibus, de pace denique ac bello plerumque in conviviis consultant, tamquam nullo magis tempore aut ad simplices cogitationes pateat animus aut ad magnas incalescat. Gens non astuta nec callida aperit adhuc secreta pectoris licentia ioci; ergo detecta et nuda omnium mens. Postera die retractatur, et salva utriusque temporis ratio est: deliberant, dum fingere nesciunt, constituunt, dum errare non possunt.

23. Potui umor ex hordeo aut frumento, in quandam similitudinem vini corruptus: proximi ripae et vinum mercantur. Cibi simplices, agrestia poma, recens fera aut lac concretum: sine apparatu, sine blandimentis expellunt famem. Adversus sitim non eadem temperantia. Si indulseris ebrietati suggerendo quantum concupiscunt, haud minus facile vitiis quam armis vincentur.

24. Genus spectaculorum unum atque in omni coetu idem. Nudi iuvenes, quibus id ludicrum est, inter gladios se atque infestas frameas saltu iaciunt. Exercitatio artem paravit, ars decorem, non in quaestum tamen aut mercedem: quamvis audacis lasciviae pretium est voluptas spectantium. Aleam, quod mirere, sobrii inter seria exercent, tanta lucrandi perdendive temeritate, ut, cum omnia defecerunt, extremo ac novissimo iactu de libertate ac de corpore contendant. Victus voluntariam servitutem adit: quamvis iuvenior, quamvis robustior adligari se ac venire patitur. Ea est in re prava pervicacia; ipsi fidem vocant. Servos condicionis huius per commercia tradunt, ut se quoque pudore victoriae exsolvant.

25. Ceteris servis non in nostrum morem, descriptis per familiam ministeriis, utuntur: suam quisque sedem, suos penates regit. Frumenti modum dominus aut pecoris aut vestis ut colono iniungit, et servus hactenus paret: cetera domus officia uxor ac liberi exsequuntur. Verberare servum ac vinculis et opere coercere rarum: occidere solent, non disciplina et severitate, sed impetu et ira, ut inimicum, nisi quod impune est. Liberti non multum supra servos sunt, raro aliquod momentum in domo, numquam in civitate, exceptis dumtaxat iis gentibus quae regnantur. Ibi enim et super ingenuos et super nobiles ascendunt: apud ceteros impares libertini libertatis argumentum sunt.

26. Faenus agitare et in usuras extendere ignotum; ideoque magis servatur quam si vetitum esset. Agri pro numero cultorum ab universis in vices occupantur, quos mox inter se secundum dignationem partiuntur; facilitatem partiendi camporum spatia praestant, Arva per annos mutant, et superest ager. Nec enim cum ubertate et amplitudine soli labore contendunt, ut pomaria conserant et prata separent et hortos rigent: sola terrae seges imperatur. Unde annum quoque ipsum non in totidem digerunt species: hiems et ver et aestas intellectum ac vocabula habent, autumni perinde nomen ac bona ignorantur.

27. Funerum nulla ambitio: id solum observatur, ut corpora clarorum virorum certis lignis crementur. Struem rogi nec vestibus nec odoribus cumulant: sua cuique arma, quorundam igni et equus adicitur. Sepulcrum caespes erigit: monumentorum arduum et operosum honorem ut gravem defunctis aspernantur. Lamenta ac lacrimas cito, dolorem et tristitiam tarde ponunt. Feminis lugere honestum est, viris meminisse.

Haec in commune de omnium Germanorum origine ac moribus accepimus: nunc singularum gentium instituta ritusque, quatenus differant, quae nationes e Germania in Gallias commigraverint, expediam.

28. Validiores olim Gallorum res fuisse summus auctorum divus Iulius tradit; eoque credibile est etiam Gallos in Germaniam transgressos: quantulum enim amnis obstabat quo minus, ut quaeque gens evaluerat, occuparet permutaretque sedes promiscuas adhuc et nulla regnorum potentia divisas? Igitur inter Hercyniam silvam Rhenumque et Moenum amnes Helvetii, ulteriora Boii, Gallica utraque gens, tenuere. Manet adhuc Boihaemi nomen significatque loci veterem memoriam quamvis mutatis cultoribus. Sed utrum Aravisci in Pannoniam ab Osis, Germanorum natione, an Osi ab Araviscis in Germaniam commigraverint, cum eodem adhuc sermone institutis moribus utantur, incertum est, quia pari olim inopia ac libertate eadem utriusque ripae bona malaque erant. Treveri et Nervii circa adfectationem Germanicae originis ultro ambitiosi sunt, tamquam per hanc gloriam sanguinis a similitudine et inertia Gallorum separentur. Ipsam Rheni ripam haud dubie Germanorum populi colunt, Vangiones, Triboci, Nemetes. Ne Ubii quidem, quamquam Romana colonia esse meruerint ac libentius Agrippinenses conditoris sui nomine vocentur, origine erubescunt, transgressi olim et experimento fidei super ipsam Rheni ripam conlocati, ut arcerent, non ut custodirentur.

29. Omnium harum gentium virtute praecipui Batavi non multum ex ripa, sed insulam Rheni amnis colunt, Chattorum quondam populus et seditione domestica in eas sedes transgressus, in quibus pars Romani imperii fierent. Manet honos et antiquae societatis insigne; nam nec tributis contemnuntur nec publicanus atterit; exempti oneribus et conlationibus et tantum in usum proeliorum sepositi, velut tela atque arma, bellis reservantur. Est in eodem obsequio et Mattiacorum gens; protulit enim magnitudo populi Romani ultra Rhenum ultraque veteres terminos imperii reverentiam. Ita sede finibusque in sua ripa, mente animoque nobiscum agunt, cetera similes Batavis, nisi quod ipso adhuc terrae suae solo et caelo acrius animantur.

Non numeraverim inter Germaniae populos, quamquam trans Rhenum Danuviumque consederint, eos qui decumates agros exercent. Levissimus quisque Gallorum et inopia audax dubiae possessionis solum occupavere; mox limite acto promotisque praesidiis sinus imperii et pars provinciae habentur.

30. Ultra hos Chatti initium sedis ab Hercynio saltu incohant, non ita effusis ac palustribus locis, ut ceterae civitates, in quas Germania patescit; durant siquidem colles, paulatim rarescunt, et Chattos suos saltus Hercynius prosequitur simul atque deponit. Duriora genti corpora, stricti artus, minax vultus et maior animi vigor. Multum, ut inter Germanos, rationis ac sollertiae: praeponere electos, audire praepositos, nosse ordines, intellegere occasiones, differre impetus, disponere diem, vallare noctem, fortunam inter dubia, virtutem inter certa numerare, quodque rarissimum nec nisi ratione disciplinae concessum, plus reponere in duce quam in exercitu. Omne robur in pedite, quem super arma ferramentis quoque et copiis onerant: alios ad proelium ire videas, Chattos ad bellum. Rari excursus et fortuita pugna. Equestrium sane virium id proprium, cito parare victoriam, cito cedere: velocitas iuxta formidinem, cunctatio propior constantiae est.

31. Et aliis Germanorum populis usurpatum raro et privata cuiusque audentia apud Chattos in consensum vertit, ut primum adoleverint, crinem barbamque submittere, nec nisi hoste caeso exuere votivum obligatumque virtuti oris habitum. Super sanguinem et spolia revelant frontem, seque tum demum pretia nascendi rettulisse dignosque patria ac parentibus ferunt: ignavis et imbellibus manet squalor. Fortissimus quisque ferreum insuper anulum (ignominiosum id genti) velut vinculum gestat, donec se caede hostis absolvat. Plurimis Chattorum hic placet habitus, iamque canent insignes et hostibus simul suisque monstrati. Omnium penes hos initia pugnarum; haec prima semper acies, visu nova; nam ne in pace quidem vultu mitiore mansuescunt. Nulli domus aut ager aut aliqua cura: prout ad quemque venere, aluntur, prodigi alieni, contemptores sui, donec exsanguis senectus tam durae virtuti impares faciat.

32. Proximi Chattis certum iam alveo Rhenum, quique terminus esse sufficiat, Usipi ac Tencteri colunt. Tencteri super solitum bellorum decus equestris disciplinae arte praecellunt; nec maior apud Chattos peditum laus quam Tencteris equitum. Sic instituere maiores; posteri imitantur. Hi lusus infantium, haec iuvenum aemulatio: perseverant senes. Inter familiam et penates et iura successionum equi traduntur: excipit filius, non ut cetera, maximus natu, sed prout ferox bello et melior.

33. Iuxta Tencteros Bructeri olim occurrebant: nunc Chamavos et Angrivarios inmigrasse narratur, pulsis Bructeris ac penitus excisis vicinarum consensu nationum, seu superbiae odio seu praedae dulcedine seu favore quodam erga nos deorum; nam ne spectaculo quidem proelii invidere. Super sexaginta milia non armis telisque Romanis, sed, quod magnificentius est, oblectationi oculisque ceciderunt. Maneat, quaeso, duretque gentibus, si non amor nostri, at certe odium sui, quando urgentibus imperii fatis nihil iam praestare fortuna maius potest quam hostium discordiam.

34. Angrivarios et Chamavos a tergo Dulgubnii et Chasuarii cludunt, aliaeque gentes haud perinde memoratae, a fronte Frisii excipiunt. Maioribus minoribusque Frisiis vocabulum est ex modo virium. Utraeque nationes usque ad Oceanum Rheno praetexuntur, ambiuntque inmensos insuper lacus et Romanis classibus navigatos. Ipsum quin etiam Oceanum illa temptavimus: et superesse adhuc Herculis columnas fama vulgavit, sive adiit Hercules, seu quidquid ubique magnificum est, in claritatem eius referre consensimus. Nec defuit audentia Druso Germanico, sed obstitit Oceanus in se simul atque in Herculem inquiri. Mox nemo temptavit, sanctiusque ac reverentius visum de actis deorum credere quam scire.

35. Hactenus in occidentem Germaniam novimus; in septentrionem ingenti flexu redit. Ac primo statim Chaucorum gens, quamquam incipiat a Frisiis ac partem litoris occupet, omnium quas exposui gentium lateribus obtenditur, donec in Chattos usque sinuetur. Tam inmensum terrarum spatium non tenent tantum Chauci, sed et implent, populus inter Germanos nobilissimus, quique magnitudinem suam malit iustitia tueri. Sine cupididate, sine impotentia, quieti secretique nulla provocant bella, nullis raptibus aut latrociniis populantur. Id praecipuum virtutis ac virium argumentum est, quod, ut superiores agant, non per iniurias adsequuntur; prompta tamen omnibus arma ac, si res poscat, exercitus, plurimum virorum equorumque; et quiescentibus eadem fama.

36. In latere Chaucorum Chattorumque Cherusci nimiam ac marcentem diu pacem inlacessiti nutrierunt: idque iucundius quam tutius fuit, quia inter impotentes et validos falso quiescas: ubi manu agitur, modestia ac probitas nomina superioris sunt. Ita qui olim boni aequique Cherusci, nunc inertes ac stulti vocantur: Chattis victoribus fortuna in sapientiam cessit. Tracti ruina Cheruscorum et Fosi, contermina gens. Adversarum rerum ex aequo socii sunt, cum in secundis minores fuissent.

37. Eundem Germaniae sinum proximi Oceano Cimbri tenent, parva nunc civitas, sed gloria ingens. Veterisque famae lata vestigia manent, utraque ripa castra ac spatia, quorum ambitu nunc quoque metiaris molem manusque gentis et tam magni exitus fidem. Sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, cum primum Cimbrorum audita sunt arma, Caecilio Metello et Papirio Carbone consulibus. Ex quo si ad alterum imperatoris Traiani consulatum computemus, ducenti ferme et decem anni colliguntur: tam diu Germania vincitur. Medio tam longi aevi spatio multa in vicem damna. Non Samnis, non Poeni, non Hispaniae Galliaeve, ne Parthi quidem saepius admonuere: quippe regno Arsacis acrior est Germanorum libertas. Quid enim aliud nobis quam caedem Crassi, amisso et ipse Pacoro, infra Ventidium deiectus Oriens obiecerit? At Germani Carbone et Cassio et Scauro Aurelio et Servilio Caepione Gnaeoque Mallio fusis vel captis quinque simul consularis exercitus populo Romano, Varum trisque cum eo legiones etiam Caesari abstulerunt; nec impune C. Marius in Italia, divus Iulius in Gallia, Drusus ac Nero et Germanicus in suis eos sedibus perculerunt. Mox ingentes Gai Caesaris minae in ludibrium versae. Inde otium, donec occasione discordiae nostrae et civilium armorum expugnatis legionum hibernis etiam Gallias adfectavere; ac rursus inde pulsi proximis temporibus triumphati magis quam victi sunt.

38. Nunc de Suebis dicendum est, quorum non una, ut Chattorum Tencterorumve, gens; maiorem enim Germaniae partem obtinent, propriis adhuc nationibus nominibusque discreti, quamquam in commune Suebi vocentur. Insigne gentis obliquare crinem nodoque substringere: sic Suebi a ceteris Germanis, sic Sueborum ingenui a servis separantur. In aliis gentibus seu cognatione aliqua Sueborum seu, quod saepe accidit, imitatione, rarum et intra iuventae spatium; apud Suebos usque ad canitiem horrentem capillum retro sequuntur. Ac saepe in ipso vertice religatur; principes et ornatiorem habent. Ea cura formae, sed innoxia; neque enim ut ament amenturve, in altitudinem quandam et terrorem adituri bella compti, ut hostium oculis, armantur.

39. Vetustissimos se nobilissimosque Sueborum Semnones memorant; fides antiquitatis religione firmatur. Stato tempore in silvam auguriis patrum et prisca formidine sacram omnes eiusdem sanguinis populi legationibus coeunt caesoque publice homine celebrant barbari ritus horrenda primordia. Est et alia luco reverentia: nemo nisi vinculo ligatus ingreditur, ut minor et potestatem numinis prae se ferens. Si forte prolapsus est, attolli et insurgere haud licitum: per humum evolvuntur. Eoque omnis superstitio respicit, tamquam inde initia gentis, ibi regnator omnium deus, cetera subiecta atque parentia. Adicit auctoritatem fortuna Semnonum: centum pagi iis habitantur magnoque corpore efficitur ut se Sueborum caput credant.

40. Contra Langobardos paucitas nobilitat: plurimis ac valentissimis nationibus cincti non per obsequium, sed proeliis ac periclitando tuti sunt. Reudigni deinde et Aviones et Anglii et Varini et Eudoses et Suardones et Nuithones fluminibus aut silvis muniuntur. Nec quicquam notabile in singulis, nisi quod in commune Nerthum, id est Terram matrem, colunt eamque intervenire rebus hominum, invehi populis arbitrantur. Est in insula Oceani castum nemus, dicatumque in eo vehiculum, veste contectum; attingere uni sacerdoti concessum. Is adesse penetrali deam intellegit vectamque bubus feminis multa cum veneratione prosequitur. Laeti tunc dies, festa loca, quaecumque adventu hospitioque dignatur. Non bella ineunt, non arma sumunt; clausum omne ferrum; pax et quies tunc tantum nota, tunc tantum amata, donec idem sacerdos satiatam conversatione mortalium deam templo reddat. Mox vehiculum et vestes et, si credere velis, numen ipsum secreto lacu abluitur. Servi ministrant, quos statim idem lacus haurit. Arcanus hinc terror sanctaque ignorantia, quid sit illud, quod tantum perituri vident.

41. Et haec quidem pars Sueborum in secretiora Germaniae porrigitur. Propior, ut, quo modo paulo ante Rhenum, sic nunc Danuvium sequar, Hermundurorum civitas, fida Romanis; eoque solis Germanorum non in ripa commercium, sed penitus atque in splendidissima Raetiae provinciae colonia. Passim et sine custode transeunt; et cum ceteris gentibus arma modo castraque nostra ostendamus, his domos villasque patefecimus non concupiscentibus. In Hermunduris Albis oritur, flumen inclutum et notum olim; nunc tantum auditur.

42. Iuxta Hermunduros Naristi ac deinde Marcomani et Quadi agunt. Praecipua Marcomanorum gloria viresque, atque ipsa etiam sedes pulsis olim Boiis virtute parta. Nec Naristi Quadive degenerant. Eaque Germaniae velut frons est, quatenus Danuvio peragitur. Marcomanis Quadisque usque ad nostram memoriam reges mansere ex gente ipsorum, nobile Marobodui et Tudri genus: iam et externos patiuntur, sed vis et potentia regibus ex auctoritate Romana. Raro armis nostris, saepius pecunia iuvantur, nec minus valent.

43. Retro Marsigni, Cotini, Osi, Buri terga Marcomanorum Quadorumque claudunt. E quibus Marsigni et Buri sermone cultuque Suebos referunt: Cotinos Gallica, Osos Pannonica lingua coarguit non esse Germanos, et quod tributa patiuntur. Partem tributorum Sarmatae, partem Quadi ut alienigenis imponunt: Cotini, quo magis pudeat, et ferrum effodiunt. Omnesque hi populi pauca campestrium, ceterum saltus et vertices montium iugumque insederunt. Dirimit enim scinditque Suebiam continuum montium iugum, ultra quod plurimae gentes agunt, ex quibus latissime patet Lygiorum nomen in plures civitates diffusum. Valentissimas nominasse sufficiet, Harios, Helveconas, Manimos, Helisios, Nahanarvalos. Apud Nahanarvalos antiquae religionis lucus ostenditur. Praesidet sacerdos muliebri ornatu, sed deos interpretatione Romana Castorem Pollucemque memorant. Ea vis numini, nomen Alcis. Nulla simulacra, nullum peregrinae superstitionis vestigium; ut fratres tamen, ut iuvenes venerantur. Ceterum Harii super vires, quibus enumeratos paulo ante populos antecedunt, truces insitae feritati arte ac tempore lenocinantur: nigra scuta, tincta corpora; atras ad proelia noctes legunt ipsaque formidine atque umbra feralis exercitus terrorem inferunt, nullo hostium sustinente novum ac velut infernum adspectum; nam primi in omnibus proeliis oculi vincuntur.

44. Trans Lygios Gotones regnantur, paulo iam adductius quam ceterae Germanorum gentes, nondum tamen supra libertatem. Protinus deinde ab Oceano Rugii et Lemovii; omniumque harum gentium insigne rotunda scuta, breves gladii et erga reges obsequium.

Suionum hinc civitates ipso in Oceano praeter viros armaque classibus valent. Forma navium eo differt, quod utrimque prora paratam semper adpulsui frontem agit. Nec velis ministrantur nec remos in ordinem lateribus adiungunt: solutum, ut in quibusdam fluminum, et mutabile, ut res poscit, hinc vel illinc remigium. Est apud illos et opibus honos, eoque unus imperitat, nullis iam exceptionibus, non precario iure parendi. Nec arma, ut apud ceteros Germanos, in promiscuo, sed clausa sub custode, et quidem servo, quia subitos hostium incursus prohibet Oceanus, otiosae porro armatorum manus facile lasciviunt. Enimvero neque nobilem neque ingenuum, ne libertinum quidem armis praeponere regia utilitas est.

45. Trans Suionas aliud mare, pigrum ac prope inmotum, quo cingi cludique terrarum orbem hinc fides, quod extremus cadentis iam solis fulgor in ortus edurat adeo clarus, ut sidera hebetet; sonum insuper emergentis audiri formasque equorum et radios capitis adspici persuasio adicit. Illuc usque (et fama vera) tantum natura. Ergo iam dextro Suebici maris litore Aestiorum gentes adluuntur, quibus ritus habitusque Sueborum, lingua Britannicae propior. Matrem deum venerantur. Insigne superstitionis formas aprorum gestant: id pro armis omniumque tutela securum deae cultorem etiam inter hostis praestat. Rarus ferri, frequens fustium usus. Frumenta ceterosque fructus patientius quam pro solita Germanorum inertia laborant. Sed et mare scrutantur, ac soli omnium sucinum, quod ipsi glesum vocant, inter vada atque in ipso litore legunt. Nec quae natura, quaeve ratio gignat, ut barbaris, quaesitum compertumve; diu quin etiam inter cetera eiectamenta maris iacebat, donec luxuria nostra dedit nomen. Ipsis in nullo usu; rude legitur, informe profertur, pretiumque mirantes accipiunt. Sucum tamen arborum esse intellegas, quia terrena quaedam atque etiam volucria animalia plerumque interlucent, quae implicata umore mox durescente materia cluduntur. Fecundiora igitur nemora lucosque sicut Orientis secretis, ubi tura balsamaque sudantur, ita Occidentis insulis terrisque inesse crediderim, quae vicini solis radiis expressa atque liquentia in proximum mare labuntur ac vi tempestatum in adversa litora exundant. Si naturam sucini admoto igni temptes, in modum taedae accenditur alitque flammam pinguem et olentem; mox ut in picem resinamve lentescit.

Suionibus Sitonum gentes continuantur. Cetera similes uno differunt, quod femina dominatur; in tantum non modo a libertate sed etiam a servitute degenerant.

46. Hic Suebiae finis. Peucinorum Venedorumque et Fennorum nationes Germanis an Sarmatis adscribam dubito, quamquam Peucini, quos quidam Bastarnas vocant, sermone, cultu, sede ac domiciliis ut Germani agunt. Sordes omnium ac torpor procerum; conubiis mixtis nonnihil in Sarmatarum habitum foedantur. Venedi multum ex moribus traxerunt; nam quidquid inter Peucinos Fennosque silvarum ac montium erigitur latrociniis pererrant. Hi tamen inter Germanos potius referuntur, quia et domos figunt et scuta gestant et pedum usu ac pernicitate gaudent: quae omnia diversa Sarmatis sunt in plaustro equoque viventibus. Fennis mira feritas, foeda paupertas: non arma, non equi, non penates; victui herba, vestitui pelles, cubile humus: solae in sagittis spes, quas inopia ferri ossibus asperant. Idemque venatus viros pariter ac feminas alit; passim enim comitantur partemque praedae petunt. Nec aliud infantibus ferarum imbriumque suffugium quam ut in aliquo ramorum nexu contegantur: huc redeunt iuvenes, hoc senum receptaculum. Sed beatius arbitrantur quam ingemere agris, inlaborare domibus, suas alienasque fortunas spe metuque versare: securi adversus homines, securi adversus deos rem difficillimam adsecuti sunt, ut illis ne voto quidem opus esset. Cetera iam fabulosa: Hellusios et Oxionas ora hominum voltusque, corpora atque artus ferarum gerere: quod ego ut incompertum in medio relinquam.

The Germany of Tacitus

The Oxford Translation, Revised, with Notes


By Edward Brooks, Jr.

Very little is known concerning the life of Tacitus, the historian, except that which he tells us in his own writings and those incidents which are related of him by his contemporary, Pliny.

His full name was Caius Cornelius Tacitus. The date of his birth can only be arrived at by conjecture, and then only approximately. The younger Pliny speaks of him as prope modum aequales, about the same age. Pliny was born in 61. Tacitus, however, occupied the office of quaestor under Vespasian in 78 A.D., at which time he must, therefore, have been at least twenty-five years of age. This would fix the date of his birth not later than 53 A.D. It is probable, therefore, that Tacitus was Pliny's senior by several years.

His parentage is also a matter of pure conjecture. The name Cornelius was a common one among the Romans, so that from it we can draw no inference. The fact that at an early age he occupied a prominent public office indicates that he was born of good family, and it is not impossible that his father was a certain Cornelius Tacitus, a Roman knight, who was procurator in Belgic Gaul, and whom the elder Pliny speaks of in his "Natural History."

Of the early life of Tacitus and the training which he underwent preparatory to those literary efforts which afterwards rendered him a conspicuous figure among Roman literateurs we know absolutely nothing.

Of the events of his life which transpired after he attained man's estate we know but little beyond that which he himself has recorded in his writings. He occupied a position of some eminence as a pleader at the Roman bar, and in 77 A.D. married the daughter of Julius Agricola, a humane and honorable citizen, who was at that time consul and was subsequently appointed governor of Britain. It is quite possible that this very advantageous alliance hastened his promotion to the office of quaestor under Vespasian.

Under Domitian, in 88, Tacitus was appointed one of fifteen commissioners to preside at the celebration of the secular games. In the same year he held the office of praetor, and was a member of one of the most select of the old priestly colleges, in which a pre-requisite of membership was that a man should be born of a good family.

The following year he appears to have left Rome, and it is possible that he visited Germany and there obtained his knowledge and information respecting the manners and customs of its people which he makes the subject of his work known as the "Germany."

He did not return to Rome until 93, after an absence of four years, during which time his father-in-law died.

Some time between the years 93 and 97 he was elected to the senate, and during this time witnessed the judicial murders of many of Rome's best citizens which were perpetrated under the reign of Nero. Being himself a senator, he felt that he was not entirely guiltless of the crimes which were committed, and in his "Agricola" we find him giving expression to this feeling in the following words: "Our own hands dragged Helvidius to prison; ourselves were tortured with the spectacle of Mauricus and Rusticus, and sprinkled with the innocent blood of Senecio."

In 97 he was elected to the consulship as successor to Virginius Rufus, who died during his term of office and at whose funeral Tacitus delivered an oration in such a manner to cause Pliny to say, "The good fortune of Virginius was crowned by having the most eloquent of panegyrists."

In 99 Tacitus was appointed by the senate, together with Pliny, to conduct the prosecution against a great political offender, Marius Priscus, who, as proconsul of Africa, had corruptly mismanaged the affairs of his province. We have his associate's testimony that Tacitus made a most eloquent and dignified reply to the arguments which were urged on the part of the defence. The prosecution was successful, and both Pliny and Tacitus were awarded a vote of thanks by the senate for their eminent and effectual efforts in the management of the case.

The exact date of Tacitus's death is not known, but in his "Annals" he seems to hint at the successful extension of the Emperor Trajan's eastern campaigns during the years 115 to 117, so that it is probable that he lived until the year 117.

Tacitus had a widespread reputation during his lifetime. On one occasion it is related of him that as he sat in the circus at the celebration of some games, a Roman knight asked him whether he was from Italy or the provinces. Tacitus answered, "You know me from your reading," to which the knight quickly replied, "Are you then Tacitus or Pliny?"

It is also worthy of notice that the Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus, who reigned during the third century, claimed to be descended from the historian, and directed that ten copies of his works should be published every year and placed in the public libraries.

The list of the extant works of Tacitus is as follows: the "Germany;" the "Life of Agricola;" the "Dialogue on Orators;" the "Histories," and the "Annals."

The following pages contain translations of the first two of these works. The "Germany," the full title of which is "Concerning the situation, manners and inhabitants of Germany," contains little of value from a historical standpoint. It describes with vividness the fierce and independent spirit of the German nations, with many suggestions as to the dangers in which the empire stood of these people. The "Agricola" is a biographical sketch of the writer's father-in-law, who, as has been said, was a distinguished man and governor of Britain. It is one of the author's earliest works and was probably written shortly after the death of Domitian, in 96. This work, short as it is, has always been considered an admirable specimen of biography on account of its grace and dignity of expression. Whatever else it may be, it is a graceful and affectionate tribute to an upright and excellent man.

The "Dialogue on Orators" treats of the decay of eloquence under the empire. It is in the form of a dialogue, and represents two eminent members of the Roman bar discussing the change for the worse that had taken place in the early education of the Roman youth.

The "Histories" relate the events which transpired in Rome, beginning with the ascession of Galba, in 68, and ending with the reign of Domitian, in 97. Only four books and a fragment of a fifth have been preserved to us. These books contain an account of the brief reigns of Galba, Otho and Vitellius. The portion of the fifth book which has been preserved contains an interesting, though rather biased, account of the character, customs and religion of the Jewish nation viewed from the standpoint of a cultivated citizen of Rome.

The "Annals" contain the history of the empire from the death of Augustus, in 14, to the death of Nero, in 68, and originally consisted of sixteen books. Of these, only nine have come down to us in a state of entire preservation, and of the other seven we have but fragments of three. Out of a period of fifty-four years we have the history of about forty.

The style of Tacitus is, perhaps, noted principally for its conciseness. Tacitean brevity is proverbial, and many of his sentences are so brief, and leave so much for the student to read between the lines, that in order to be understood and appreciated the author must be read over and over again, lest the reader miss the point of some of his most excellent thoughts. Such an author presents grave, if not insuperable, difficulties to the translator, but notwithstanding this fact, the following pages cannot but impress the reader with the genius of Tacitus.

A Treatise on the Situation, Manners and Inhabitants of Germany [1]

1. Germany [2] is separated from Gaul, Rhaetia, [3] and Pannonia, [4] by the rivers Rhine and Danube; from Sarmatia and Dacia, by mountains [5] and mutual dread. The rest is surrounded by an ocean, embracing broad promontories [6] and vast insular tracts, [7] in which our military expeditions have lately discovered various nations and kingdoms. The Rhine, issuing from the inaccessible and precipitous summit of the Rhaetic Alps, [8] bends gently to the west, and falls into the Northern Ocean. The Danube, poured from the easy and gently raised ridge of Mount Abnoba, [9] visits several nations in its course, till at length it bursts out [10] by six channels [11] into the Pontic sea; a seventh is lost in marshes.

2. The people of Germany appear to me indigenous, [12] and free from intermixture with foreigners, either as settlers or casual visitants. For the emigrants of former ages performed their expeditions not by land, but by water; [13] and that immense, and, if I may so call it, hostile ocean, is rarely navigated by ships from our world. [14] Then, besides the danger of a boisterous and unknown sea, who would relinquish Asia, Africa, or Italy, for Germany, a land rude in its surface, rigorous in its climate, cheerless to every beholder and cultivator, except a native? In their ancient songs, [15] which are their only records or annals, they celebrate the god Tuisto, [16] sprung from the earth, and his son Mannus, as the fathers and founders of their race. To Mannus they ascribe three sons, from whose names [17] the people bordering on the ocean are called Ingaevones; those inhabiting the central parts, Herminones; the rest, Istaevones. Some, [18] however, assuming the licence of antiquity, affirm that there were more descendants of the god, from whom more appellations were derived; as those of the Marsi, [19] Gambrivii, [20] Suevi, [21] and Vandali; [22] and that these are the genuine and original names. [23] That of Germany, on the other hand, they assert to be a modern addition; [24] for that the people who first crossed the Rhine, and expelled the Gauls, and are now called Tungri, were then named Germans; which appellation of a particular tribe, not of a whole people, gradually prevailed; so that the title of Germans, first assumed by the victors in order to excite terror, was afterwards adopted by the nation in general. [25] They have likewise the tradition of a Hercules [26] of their country, whose praises they sing before those of all other heroes as they advance to battle.

3. A peculiar kind of verses is also current among them, by the recital of which, termed "barding," [27] they stimulate their courage; while the sound itself serves as an augury of the event of the impending combat. For, according to the nature of the cry proceeding from the line, terror is inspired or felt: nor does it seem so much an articulate song, as the wild chorus of valor. A harsh, piercing note, and a broken roar, are the favorite tones; which they render more full and sonorous by applying their mouths to their shields. [28] Some conjecture that Ulysses, in the course of his long and fabulous wanderings, was driven into this ocean, and landed in Germany; and that Asciburgium, [29] a place situated on the Rhine, and at this day inhabited, was founded by him, and named Askipurgion. They pretend that an altar was formerly discovered here, consecrated to Ulysses, with the name of his father Laertes subjoined; and that certain monuments and tombs, inscribed with Greek characters, [30] are still extant upon the confines of Germany and Rhaetia. These allegations I shall neither attempt to confirm nor to refute: let every one believe concerning them as he is disposed.

4. I concur in opinion with those who deem the Germans never to have intermarried with other nations; but to be a race, pure, unmixed, and stamped with a distinct character. Hence a family likeness pervades the whole, though their numbers are so great: eyes stern and blue; ruddy hair; large bodies, [31] powerful in sudden exertions, but impatient of toil and labor, least of all capable of sustaining thirst and heat. Cold and hunger they are accustomed by their climate and soil to endure.

5. The land, though varied to a considerable extent in its aspect, is yet universally shagged with forests, or deformed by marshes: moister on the side of Gaul, more bleak on the side of Norieum and Pannonia. [32] It is productive of grain, but unkindly to fruit-trees. [33] It abounds in flocks and herds, but in general of a small breed. Even the beeve kind are destitute of their usual stateliness and dignity of head: [34] they are, however, numerous, and form the most esteemed, and, indeed, the only species of wealth. Silver and gold the gods, I know not whether in their favor or anger, have denied to this country. [35] Not that I would assert that no veins of these metals are generated in Germany; for who has made the search? The possession of them is not coveted by these people as it is by us. Vessels of silver are indeed to be seen among them, which have been presented to their ambassadors and chiefs; but they are held in no higher estimation than earthenware. The borderers, however, set a value on gold and silver for the purpose of commerce, and have learned to distinguish several kinds of our coin, some of which they prefer to others: the remoter inhabitants continue the more simple and ancient usage of bartering commodities. The money preferred by the Germans is the old and well-known species, such as the Serrati and Bigati. [36] They are also better pleased with silver than gold; [37] not on account of any fondness for that metal, but because the smaller money is more convenient in their common and petty merchandise.

6. Even iron is not plentiful [38] among them; as may be inferred from the nature of their weapons. Swords or broad lances are seldom used; but they generally carry a spear, (called in their language framea, [39]) which has an iron blade, short and narrow, but so sharp and manageable, that, as occasion requires, they employ it either in close or distant fighting. [40] This spear and a shield are all the armor of the cavalry. The foot have, besides, missile weapons, several to each man, which they hurl to an immense distance. [41] They are either naked, [42] or lightly covered with a small mantle; and have no pride in equipage: their shields only are ornamented with the choicest colors. [43] Few are provided with a coat of mail; [44] and scarcely here and there one with a casque or helmet. [45] Their horses are neither remarkable for beauty nor swiftness, nor are they taught the various evolutions practised with us. The cavalry either bear down straight forwards, or wheel once to the right, in so compact a body that none is left behind the rest. Their principal strength, on the whole, consists in their infantry: hence in an engagement these are intermixed with the cavalry; [46] so Well accordant with the nature of equestrian combats is the agility of those foot soldiers, whom they select from the whole body of their youth, and place in the front of the line. Their number, too, is determined; a hundred from each canton: [47] and they are distinguished at home by a name expressive of this circumstance; so that what at first was only an appellation of number, becomes thenceforth a title of honor. Their line of battle is disposed in wedges. [48] To give ground, provided they rally again, is considered rather as a prudent strategem, than cowardice. They carry off their slain even while the battle remains undecided. The, greatest disgrace that can befall them is to have abandoned their shields. [49] A person branded with this ignominy is not permitted to join in their religious rites, or enter their assemblies; so that many, after escaping from battle, have put an end to their infamy by the halter.

7. In the election of kings they have regard to birth; in that of generals, [50] to valor. Their kings have not an absolute or unlimited power; [51] and their generals command less through the force of authority, than of example. If they are daring, adventurous, and conspicuous in action, they procure obedience from the admiration they inspire. None, however, but the priests [52] are permitted to judge offenders, to inflict bonds or stripes; so that chastisement appears not as an act of military discipline, but as the instigation of the god whom they suppose present with warriors. They also carry with them to battle certain images and standards taken from the sacred groves. [53] It is a principal incentive to their courage, that their squadrons and battalions are not formed by men fortuitously collected, but by the assemblage of families and clans. Their pledges also are near at hand; they have within hearing the yells of their women, and the cries of their children. These, too, are the most revered witnesses of each man's conduct, these his most liberal applauders. To their mothers and their wives they bring their wounds for relief, nor do these dread to count or to search out the gashes. The women also administer food and encouragement to those who are fighting.

8. Tradition relates, that armies beginning to give way have been rallied by the females, through the earnestness of their supplications, the interposition of their bodies, [54] and the pictures they have drawn of impending slavery, [55] a calamity which these people bear with more impatience for their women than themselves; so that those states who have been obliged to give among their hostages the daughters of noble families, are the most effectually bound to fidelity. [56] They even suppose somewhat of sanctity and prescience to be inherent in the female sex; and therefore neither despise their counsels, [57] nor disregard their responses. [58] We have beheld, in the reign of Vespasian, Veleda, [59] long reverenced by many as a deity. Aurima, moreover, and several others, [60] were formerly held in equal veneration, but not with a servile flattery, nor as though they made them goddesses. [61]

9. Of the gods, Mercury [62] is the principal object of their adoration; whom, on certain days, [63] they think it lawful to propitiate even with human victims. To Hercules and Mars [64] they offer the animals usually allotted for sacrifice. [65] Some of the Suevi also perform sacred rites to Isis. What was the cause and origin of this foreign worship, I have not been able to discover; further than that her being represented with the symbol of a galley, seems to indicate an imported religion. [66] They conceive it unworthy the grandeur of celestial beings to confine their deities within walls, or to represent them under a human similitude: [67] woods and groves are their temples; and they affix names of divinity to that secret power, which they behold with the eye of adoration alone.

10. No people are more addicted to divination by omens and lots. The latter is performed in the following simple manner. They cut a twig [68] from a fruit-tree, and divide it into small pieces, which, distinguished by certain marks, are thrown promiscuously upon a white garment. Then, the priest of the canton, if the occasion be public; if private, the master of the family; after an invocation of the gods, with his eyes lifted up to heaven, thrice takes out each piece, and, as they come up, interprets their signification according to the marks fixed upon them. If the result prove unfavorable, there is no more consultation on the same affair that day; if propitious, a confirmation by omens is still required. In common with other nations, the Germans are acquainted with the practice of auguring from the notes and flight of birds; but it is peculiar to them to derive admonitions and presages from horses also. [69] Certain of these animals, milk-white, and untouched by earthly labor, are pastured at the public expense in the sacred woods and groves. These, yoked to a consecrated chariot, are accompanied by the priest, and king, or chief person of the community, who attentively observe their manner of neighing and snorting; and no kind of augury is more credited, not only among the populace, but among the nobles and priests. For the latter consider themselves as the ministers of the gods, and the horses, as privy to the divine will. Another kind of divination, by which they explore the event of momentous wars, is to oblige a prisoner, taken by any means whatsoever from the nation with whom they are at variance, to fight with a picked man of their own, each with his own country's arms; and, according as the victory falls, they presage success to the one or to the other party. [70]

11. On affairs of smaller moment, the chiefs consult; on those of greater importance, the whole community; yet with this circumstance, that what is referred to the decision of the people, is first maturely discussed by the chiefs. [71] They assemble, unless upon some sudden emergency, on stated days, either at the new or full moon, which they account the most auspicious season for beginning any enterprise. Nor do they, in their computation of time, reckon, like us, by the number of days, but of nights. In this way they arrange their business; in this way they fix their appointments; so that, with them, the night seems to lead the day. [72] An inconvenience produced by their liberty is, that they do not all assemble at a stated time, as if it were in obedience to a command; but two or three days are lost in the delays of convening. When they all think fit, [73] they sit down armed. [74] Silence is proclaimed by the priests, who have on this occasion a coercive power. Then the king, or chief, and such others as are conspicuous for age, birth, military renown, or eloquence, are heard; and gain attention rather from their ability to persuade, than their authority to command. If a proposal displease, the assembly reject it by an inarticulate murmur; if it prove agreeable, they clash their javelins; [75] for the most honorable expression of assent among them is the sound of arms.

12. Before this council, it is likewise allowed to exhibit accusations, and to prosecute capital offences. Punishments are varied according to the nature of the crime. Traitors and deserters are hung upon trees: [76] cowards, dastards, [77] and those guilty of unnatural practices, [78] are suffocated in mud under a hurdle. [79] This difference of punishment has in view the principle, that villainy should he exposed while it is punished, but turpitude concealed. The penalties annexed to slighter offences [80] are also proportioned to the delinquency. The convicts are fined in horses and cattle: [81] part of the mulct [82] goes to the king or state; part to the injured person, or his relations. In the same assemblies chiefs [83] are also elected, to administer justice through the cantons and districts. A hundred companions, chosen from the people, attended upon each of them, to assist them as well with their advice as their authority.

13. The Germans transact no business, public or private, without being armed: [84] but it is not customary for any person to assume arms till the state has approved his ability to use them. Then, in the midst of the assembly, either one of the chiefs, or the father, or a relation, equips the youth with a shield and javelin. [85] These are to them the manly gown; [86] this is the first honor conferred on youth: before this they are considered as part of a household; afterwards, of the state. The dignity of chieftain is bestowed even on mere lads, whose descent is eminently illustrious, or whose fathers have performed signal services to the public; they are associated, however, with those of mature strength, who have already been declared capable of service; nor do they blush to be seen in the rank of companions. [87] For the state of companionship itself has its several degrees, determined by the judgment of him whom they follow; and there is a great emulation among the companions, which shall possess the highest place in the favor of their chief; and among the chiefs, which shall excel in the number and valor of his companions. It is their dignity, their strength, to be always surrounded with a large body of select youth, an ornament in peace, a bulwark in war. And not in his own country alone, but among the neighboring states, the fame and glory of each chief consists in being distinguished for the number and bravery of his companions. Such chiefs are courted by embassies; distinguished by presents; and often by their reputation alone decide a war.

14. In the field of battle, it is disgraceful for the chief to be surpassed in valor; it is disgraceful for the companions not to equal their chief; but it is reproach and infamy during a whole succeeding life to retreat from the field surviving him. [88] To aid, to protect him; to place their own gallant actions to the account of his glory, is their first and most sacred engagement. The chiefs fight for victory; the companions for their chief. If their native country be long sunk in peace and inaction, many of the young nobles repair to some other state then engaged in war. For, besides that repose is unwelcome to their race, and toils and perils afford them a better opportunity of distinguishing themselves; they are unable, without war and violence, to maintain a large train of followers. The companion requires from the liberality of his chief, the warlike steed, the bloody and conquering spear: and in place of pay, he expects to be supplied with a table, homely indeed, but plentiful. [89] The funds for this munificence must be found in war and rapine; nor are they so easily persuaded to cultivate the earth, and await the produce of the seasons, as to challenge the foe, and expose themselves to wounds; nay, they even think it base and spiritless to earn by sweat what they might purchase with blood.

15. During the intervals of war, they pass their time less in hunting than in a sluggish repose, [90] divided between sleep and the table. All the bravest of the warriors, committing the care of the house, the family affairs, and the lands, to the women, old men, and weaker part of the domestics, stupefy themselves in inaction: so wonderful is the contrast presented by nature, that the same persons love indolence, and hate tranquillity! [91] It is customary for the several states to present, by voluntary and individual contributions, [92] cattle or grain [93] to their chiefs; which are accepted as honorary gifts, while they serve as necessary supplies. [94] They are peculiarly pleased with presents from neighboring nations, offered not only by individuals, but by the community at large; such as fine horses, heavy armor, rich housings, and gold chains. We have now taught them also to accept of money. [95]

16. It is well known that none of the German nations inhabit cities; [96] or even admit of contiguous settlements. They dwell scattered and separate, as a spring, a meadow, or a grove may chance to invite them. Their villages are laid out, not like ours in rows of adjoining buildings; but every one surrounds his house with a vacant space, [97] either by way of security against fire, [97] or through ignorance of the art of building. For, indeed, they are unacquainted with the use of mortar and tiles; and for every purpose employ rude unshapen timber, fashioned with no regard to pleasing the eye. They bestow more than ordinary pains in coating certain parts of their buildings with a kind of earth, so pure and shining that it gives the appearance of painting. They also dig subterraneous caves, [99] and cover them over with a great quantity of dung. These they use as winter-retreats, and granaries; for they preserve a moderate temperature; and upon an invasion, when the open country is plundered, these recesses remain unviolated, either because the enemy is ignorant of them, or because he will not trouble himself with the search. [100]

17. The clothing common to all is a sagum [101] fastened by a clasp, or, in want of that, a thorn. With no other covering, they pass whole days on the hearth, before the fire. The more wealthy are distinguished by a vest, not flowing loose, like those of the Sarmatians and Parthians, but girt close, and exhibiting the shape of every limb. They also wear the skins of beasts, which the people near the borders are less curious in selecting or preparing than the more remote inhabitants, who cannot by commerce procure other clothing. These make choice of particular skins, which they variegate with spots, and strips of the furs of marine animals, [102] the produce of the exterior ocean, and seas to us unknown. [103] The dress of the women does not differ from that of the men; except that they more frequently wear linen, [104] which they stain with purple; [105] and do not lengthen their upper garment into sleeves, but leave exposed the whole arm, and part of the breast.

18. The matrimonial bond is, nevertheless, strict and severe among them; nor is there anything in their manners more commendable than this. [106] Almost singly among the barbarians, they content themselves with one wife; a very few of them excepted, who, not through incontinence, but because their alliance is solicited on account of their rank, [107] practise polygamy. The wife does not bring a dowry to her husband, but receives one from him. [108] The parents and relations assemble, and pass their approbation on the presents -- presents not adapted to please a female taste, or decorate the bride; but oxen, a caparisoned steed, a shield, spear, and sword. By virtue of these, the wife is espoused; and she in her turn makes a present of some arms to her husband. This they consider as the firmest bond of union; these, the sacred mysteries, the conjugal deities. That the woman may not think herself excused from exertions of fortitude, or exempt from the casualties of war, she is admonished by the very ceremonial of her marriage, that she comes to her husband as a partner in toils and dangers; to suffer and to dare equally with him, in peace and in war: this is indicated by the yoked oxen, the harnessed steed, the offered arms. Thus she is to live; thus to die. She receives what she is to return inviolate [109] and honored to her children; what her daughters-in-law are to receive, and again transmit to her grandchildren.

19. They live, therefore, fenced around with chastity; [110] corrupted by no seductive spectacles, [111] no convivial incitements. Men and women are alike unacquainted with clandestine correspondence. Adultery is extremely rare among so numerous a people. Its punishment is instant, and at the pleasure of the husband. He cuts off the hair [112] of the offender, strips her, and in presence of her relations expels her from his house, and pursues her with stripes through the whole village. [113] Nor is any indulgence shown to a prostitute. Neither beauty, youth, nor riches can procure her a husband: for none there looks on vice with a smile, or calls mutual seduction the way of the world. Still more exemplary is the practice of those states [114] in which none but virgins marry, and the expectations and wishes of a wife are at once brought to a period. Thus, they take one husband as one body and one life; that no thought, no desire, may extend beyond him; and he may be loved not only as their husband, but as their marriage. [115] To limit the increase of children, [116] or put to death any of the later progeny [117] is accounted infamous: and good habits have there more influence than good laws elsewhere. [118]

20. In every house the children grow up, thinly and meanly clad, [119] to that bulk of body and limb which we behold with wonder. Every mother suckles her own children, and does not deliver them into the hands of servants and nurses. No indulgence distinguishes the young master from the slave. They lie together amidst the same cattle, upon the same ground, till age [120] separates, and valor marks out, the free-born. The youths partake late of the pleasures of love, [121] and hence pass the age of puberty unexhausted: nor are the virgins hurried into marriage; the same maturity, the same full growth is required: the sexes unite equally matched [122] and robust; and the children inherit the vigor of their parents. Children are regarded with equal affection by their maternal uncles [123] as by their fathers: some even consider this as the more sacred bond of consanguinity, and prefer it in the requisition of hostages, as if it held the mind by a firmer tie, and the family by a more extensive obligation. A person's own children, however, are his heirs and successors; and no wills are made. If there be no children, the next in order of inheritance are brothers, paternal and maternal uncles. The more numerous are a man's relations and kinsmen, the more comfortable is his old age; nor is it here any advantage to be childless. [124]

21. It is an indispensable duty to adopt the enmities [125] of a father or relation, as well as their friendships: these, however, are not irreconcilable or perpetual. Even homicide is atoned [126] by a certain fine in cattle and sheep; and the whole family accepts the satisfaction, to the advantage of the public weal, since quarrels are most dangerous in a free state. No people are more addicted to social entertainments, or more liberal in the exercise of hospitality. [127] To refuse any person whatever admittance under their roof, is accounted flagitious. [128] Every one according to his ability feasts his guest: when his provisions are exhausted, he who was late the host, is now the guide and companion to another hospitable board. They enter the next house uninvited, and are received with equal cordiality. No one makes a distinction with respect to the rights of hospitality, between a stranger and an acquaintance. The departing guest is presented with whatever he may ask for; and with the same freedom a boon is desired in return. They are pleased with presents; but think no obligation incurred either when they give or receive.

22. [129] [Their manner of living with their guest is easy and affable] As soon as they arise from sleep, which they generally protract till late in the day, they bathe, usually in warm water, [130] as cold weather chiefly prevails there. After bathing they take their meal, each on a distinct seat, and a a separate table. [131] Then they proceed, armed, to business, and not less frequently to convivial parties, in which it is no disgrace to pass days and nights, without intermission, in drinking. The frequent quarrels that arise amongst them, when intoxicated, seldom terminate in abusive language, but more frequently in blood. [132] In their feasts, they generally deliberate on the reconcilement of enemies, on family alliances, on the appointment of chiefs, and finally on peace and war; conceiving that at no time the soul is more opened to sincerity, or warmed to heroism. These people, naturally void of artifice or disguise, disclose the most secret emotions of their hearts in the freedom of festivity. The minds of all being thus displayed without reserve, the subjects of their deliberation are again canvassed the next day; [133] and each time has its advantages. They consult when unable to dissemble; they determine when not liable to mistake.

23. Their drink is a liquor prepared from barley or wheat [134] brought by fermentation to a certain resemblance of wine. Those who border on the Rhine also purchase wine. Their food is simple; wild fruits, fresh venison, [135] or coagulated milk. [136] They satisfy hunger without seeking the elegances and delicacies of the table. Their thirst for liquor is not quenched with equal moderation. If their propensity to drunkenness be gratified to the extent of their wishes, intemperance proves as effectual in subduing them as the force of arms. [137]

24. They have only one kind of public spectacle, which is exhibited in every company. Young men, who make it their diversion, dance naked amidst drawn swords and presented spears. Practice has conferred skill at this exercise; and skill has given grace; but they do not exhibit for hire or gain: the only reward of this pastime, though a hazardous one, is the pleasure of the spectators. What is extraordinary, they play at dice, when sober, as a serious business: and that with such a desperate venture of gain or loss, that, when everything else is gone, they set their liberties and persons on the last throw. The loser goes into voluntary servitude; and, though the youngest and strongest, patiently suffers himself to be bound and sold. [138] Such is their obstinacy in a bad practice -- they themselves call it honor. The slaves thus acquired are exchanged away in commerce, that the winner may get rid of the scandal of his victory.

25. The rest of their slaves have not, like ours, particular employments in the family allotted them. Each is the master of a habitation and household of his own. The lord requires from him a certain quantity of grain, cattle, or cloth, as from a tenant; and so far only the subjection of the slave extends. [139] His domestic offices are performed by his own wife and children. It is usual to scourge a slave, or punish him with chains or hard labor. They are sometimes killed by their masters; not through severity of chastisement, but in the heat of passion, like an enemy; with this difference, that it is done with impunity. [140] Freedmen are little superior to slaves; seldom filling any important office in the family; never in the state, except in those tribes which are under regal government. [141] There, they rise above the free-born, and even the nobles: in the rest, the subordinate condition of the freedmen is a proof of freedom.

26. Lending money upon interest, and increasing it by usury, [142] is unknown amongst them: and this ignorance more effectually prevents the practice than a prohibition would do. The lands are occupied by townships, [143] in allotments proportional to the number of cultivators; and are afterwards parcelled out among the individuals of the district, in shares according to the rank and condition of each person. [144] The wide extent of plain facilitates this partition. The arable lands are annually changed, and a part left fallow; nor do they attempt to make the most of the fertility and plenty of the soil, by their own industry in planting orchards, inclosing meadows, and watering gardens. Corn is the only product required from the earth: hence their year is not divided into so many seasons as ours; for, while they know and distinguish by name Winter, Spring, and Summer, they are unacquainted equally with the appellation and bounty of Autumn. [145]

27. Their funerals are without parade. [146] The only circumstance to which they attend, is to burn the bodies of eminent persons with some particular kinds of wood. Neither vestments nor perfumes are heaped upon the pile: [147] the arms of the deceased, and sometimes his horse, [148] are given to the flames. The tomb is a mound of turf. They contemn the elaborate and costly honours of monumental structures, as mere burthens to the dead. They soon dismiss tears and lamentations; slowly, sorrow and regret. They think it the women's part to bewail their friends, the men's to remember them.

28. This is the sum of what I have been able to learn concerning the origin and manners of the Germans in general. I now proceed to mention those particulars in which they differ from each other; and likewise to relate what nations have migrated from Germany into Gaul. That great writer, the deified Julius, asserts that the Gauls were formerly the superior people; [149] whence it is probable that some Gallic colonies passed over into Germany: for how small an obstacle would a river be to prevent any nation, as it increased in strength, from occupying or changing settlements as yet lying in common, and unappropriated by the power of monarchies! Accordingly, the tract betwixt the Hercynian forest and the rivers Rhine and Mayne was possessed by the Helvetii: [150] and that beyond, by the Boii; [151] both Gallic tribes. The name of Boiemum still remains, a memorial of the ancient settlement, though its inhabitants are now changed. [152] But whether the Aravisci [153] migrated into Pannonia from the Osi, [154] a German nation; or the Osi into Germany from the Aravisci; the language, institutions, and manners of both being still the same, is a matter of uncertainty; for, in their pristine state of equal indigence and equal liberty, the same advantages and disadvantages were common to both sides of the river. The Treveri [155] and Nervii [156] are ambitious of being thought of German origin; as if the reputation of this descent would distinguish them from the Gauls, whom they resemble in person and effeminacy. The Vangiones, Triboci, and Nemetes, [157] who inhabit the bank of the Rhine, are without doubt German tribes. Nor do the Ubii, [158] although they have been thought worthy of being made a Roman colony, and are pleased in bearing the name of Agrippinenses from their founder, blush to acknowledge their origin from Germany; from whence they formerly migrated, and for their approved fidelity were settled on the bank of the Rhine, not that they might be guarded themselves, but that they might serve as a guard against invaders.

29. Of all these people, the most famed for valor are the Batavi; whose territories comprise but a small part of the banks of the Rhine, but consist chiefly of an island within it. [159] These were formerly a tribe of the Catti, who, on account of an intestine division, removed to their present settlements, in order to become a part of the Roman empire. They still retain this honor, together with a memorial of their ancient alliance; [160] for they are neither insulted by taxes, nor oppressed by farmers of the revenue. Exempt from fiscal burthens and extraordinary contributions, and kept apart for military use alone, they are reserved, like a magazine of arms, for the purposes of war. The nation of the Mattiaci [161] is under a degree of subjection of the same kind: for the greatness of the Roman people has carried a reverence for the empire beyond the Rhine and the ancient limits. The Mattiaci, therefore, though occupying a settlement and borders [162] on the opposite side of the river, from sentiment and attachment act with us; resembling the Batavi in every respect, except that they are animated with a more vigorous spirit by the soil and air of their own country. [163] I do not reckon among the people of Germany those who occupy the Decumate lands, [164] although inhabiting between the Rhine and Danube. Some of the most fickle of the Gauls, rendered daring through indigence, seized upon this district of uncertain property. Afterwards, our boundary line being advanced, and a chain of fortified posts established, it became a skirt of the empire, and part of the Roman province. [165]

30. Beyond these dwell the Catti, [166] whose settlements, beginning from the Hercynian forest, are in a tract of country less open and marshy than those which overspread the other states of Germany; for it consists of a continued range of hills, which gradually become more scattered; and the Hercynian forest [167] both accompanies and leaves behind, its Catti. This nation is distinguished by hardier frames, [168] compactness of limb, fierceness of countenance, and superior vigor of mind. For Germans, they have a considerable share of understanding and sagacity; they choose able persons to command, and obey them when chosen; keep their ranks; seize opportunities; restrain impetuous motions; distribute properly the business of the day; intrench themselves against the night; account fortune dubious, and valor only certain; and, what is extremely rare, and only a consequence of discipline, depend more upon the general than the army. [169] Their force consists entirely in infantry; who, besides their arms, are obliged to carry tools and provisions. Other nations appear to go to a battle; the Catti, to war. Excursions and casual encounters are rare amongst them. It is, indeed, peculiar to cavalry soon to obtain, and soon to yield, the victory. Speed borders upon timidity; slow movements are more akin to steady valor.

31. A custom followed among the other German nations only by a few individuals, of more daring spirit than the rest, is adopted by general consent among the Catti. From the time they arrive at years of maturity they let their hair and beard grow; [170] and do not divest themselves of this votive badge, the promise of valor, till they have slain an enemy. Over blood and spoils they unveil the countenance, and proclaim that they have at length paid the debt of existence, and have proved themselves worthy of their country and parents. The cowardly and effeminate continue in their squalid disguise. The bravest among them wear also an iron ring [171] (a mark of ignominy in that nation) as a kind of chain, till they have released themselves by the slaughter of a foe. Many of the Catti assume this distinction, and grow hoary under the mark, conspicuous both to foes and friends. By these, in every engagement, the attack is begun: they compose the front line, presenting a new spectacle of terror. Even in peace they do not relax the sternness of their aspect. They have no house, land, or domestic cares: they are maintained by whomsoever they visit: lavish of another's property, regardless of their own; till the debility of age renders them unequal to such a rigid course of military virtue. [172]

32. Next to the Catti, on the banks of the Rhine, where, now settled in its channel, it is become a sufficient boundary, dwell the Usipii and Tencteri. [173] The latter people, in addition to the usual military reputation, are famed for the discipline of their cavalry; nor is the infantry of the Catti in higher estimation than the horse of the Tencteri. Their ancestors established it, and are imitated by posterity. Horsemanship is the sport of their children, the point of emulation of their youth, and the exercise in which they persevere to old age. Horses are bequeathed along with the domestics, the household gods, and the rights of inheritance: they do not, however, like other things, go to the eldest son, but to the bravest and most warlike.

33. Contiguous to the Tencteri were formerly the Bructeri; [174] but report now says that the Chamavi and Angrivarii, [175] migrating into their country, have expelled and entirely extirpated them, [176] with the concurrence of the neighboring nations, induced either by hatred of their arrogance, [177] love of plunder, or the favor of the gods towards the Romans. For they even gratified us with the spectacle of a battle, in which above sixty thousand Germans were slain, not by Roman arms, but, what was still grander, by mutual hostilities, as it were for our pleasure and entertainment. [178] May the nations retain and perpetuate, if not an affection for us, at least an animosity against each other! since, while the fate of the empire is thus urgent, [179] fortune can bestow no higher benefit upon us, than the discord of our enemies.

34. Contiguous to the Angrivarii and Chamavi backwards lie the Dulgibini, Chasauri, [180] and other nations less known. [181] In front, the Frisii [182] succeed; who are distinguished by the appellations of Greater and Lesser, from their proportional power. The settlements of both stretch along the border of the Rhine to the ocean; and include, besides, vast lakes, [183] which have been navigated by Roman fleets. We have even explored the ocean itself on that side; and fame reports that columns of Hercules [184] are still remaining on that coast; whether it be that Hercules was ever there in reality, or that whatever great and magnificent is anywhere met with is, by common consent, ascribed to his renowned name. The attempt of Drusus Germanicus [185] to make discoveries in these parts was sufficiently daring; but the ocean opposed any further inquiry into itself and Hercules. After a while no one renewed the attempt; and it was thought more pious and reverential to believe the actions of the gods, than to investigate them.

35. Hitherto we have traced the western side of Germany. It turns from thence with a vast sweep to the north: and first occurs the country of the Chauci, [186] which, though it begins immediately from Frisia, and occupies part of the seashore, yet stretches so far as to border on all the nations before mentioned, till it winds round so as to meet the territories of the Catti. This immense tract is not only possessed, but filled by the Chauci; a people the noblest of the Germans, who choose to maintain their greatness by justice rather than violence. Without ambition, without ungoverned desires, quiet and retired, they provoke no wars, they are guilty of no rapine or plunder; and it is a principal proof of their power and bravery, that the superiority they possess has not been acquired by unjust means. Yet all have arms in readiness; [187] and, if necessary, an army is soon raised: for they abound in men and horses, and maintain their military reputation even in inaction.

36. Bordering on the Chauci and Catti are the Cherusci; [188] who, for want of an enemy, long cherished a too lasting and enfeebling peace: a state more flattering than secure; since the repose enjoyed amidst ambitious and powerful neighbors is treacherous; and when an appeal is made to the sword, moderation and probity are names appropriated by the victors. Thus, the Cherusci, who formerly bore the titles of just and upright, are now charged with cowardice and folly; and the good fortune of the Catti, who subdued them, has grown into wisdom. The ruin of the Cherusci involved that of the Fosi, [189] a neighboring tribe, equal partakers of their adversity, although they had enjoyed an inferior share of their prosperity.

37. In the same quarter of Germany, adjacent to the ocean, dwell the Cimbri; [191] a small [192] state at present, but great in renown. [193] Of their past grandeur extensive vestiges still remain, in encampments and lines on either shore, [194] from the compass of which the strength and numbers of the nation may still be computed, and credit derived to the account of so prodigious an army. It was in the 640th year of Rome that the arms of the Cimbri were first heard of, under the consulate of Caecilius Metellus and Papirius Carbo; from which era to the second consulate of the emperor Trajan [195] is a period of nearly 210 years. So long has Germany withstood the arms of Rome. During this long interval many mutual wounds have been inflicted. Not the Samnite, the Carthaginian, Spain, Gaul, or Parthia, have given more frequent alarms; for the liberty of the Germans is more vigorous than the monarchy of the Arsacidae. What has the East, which has itself lost Pacorus, and suffered an overthrow from Ventidius, [196] to boast against us, but the slaughter of Crassus? But the Germans, by the defeat or capture of Carbo, [197] Cassius, [198] Scaurus Aurelius, [199] Servilius Caepio, and Cneius Manlius, [200] deprived the Roman people of five consular armies; [201] and afterwards took from Augustus himself Varus with three legions. [202] Nor did Caius Marius [203] in Italy, the deified Julius [204] in Gaul, or Drusus, [204] Nero, [204] or Germanicus [204] in their own country, defeat then without loss. The subsequent mighty threats of Caligula terminated in ridicule. Then succeeded tranquillity; till, seizing the occasion of our discords and civil wars, they forced the winter-quarters of the legions, [205] and even aimed at the possession of Gaul; and, again expelled thence, they have in latter times been rather triumphed over [206] than vanquished.

38. We have now to speak of the Suevi; [207] who do not compose a single state, like the Catti or Tencteri, but occupy the greatest part of Germany, and are still distributed into different names and nations, although all hearing the common appellation of Suevi. It is a characteristic of this people to turn their hair sideways, and tie it beneath the poll in a knot. By this mark the Suevi are distinguished from the rest of the Germans; and the freemen of the Suevi from the slaves. [208] Among other nations, this mode, either on account of some relationship with the Suevi, or from the usual propensity to imitation, is sometimes adopted; but rarely, and only during the period of youth. The Suevi, even till they are hoary, continue to have their hair growing stiffly backwards, and often it is fastened on the very crown of the head. The chiefs dress it with still greater care: and in this respect they study ornament, though of an undebasing kind. For their design is not to make love, or inspire it; they decorate themselves in this manner as they proceed to war, in order to seem taller and more terrible; and dress for the eyes of their enemies.

39. The Semnones [209] assert themselves to be the most ancient and noble of the Suevi; and their pretensions are confirmed by religion. At a stated time, all the people of the same lineage assemble by their delegates in a wood, consecrated by the auguries of their forefathers and ancient terror, and there by the public slaughter of a human victim celebrate the horrid origin of their barbarous rites. Another kind of reverence is paid to the grove. No person enters it without being bound with a chain, as an acknowledgment of his inferior nature, and the power of the deity residing there. If he accidentally fall, it is not lawful for him to be lifted or to rise up; they roll themselves out along the ground. The whole of their superstition has this import: that from this spot the nation derives its origin; that here is the residence of the Deity, the Governor of all, and that everything else is subject and subordinate to him. These opinions receive additional authority from the power of the Semnones, who inhabit a hundred cantons, and, from the great body they compose, consider themselves as the head of the Suevi.

40. The Langobardi, [210] on the other hand, are ennobled by, the smallness of their numbers; since though surrounded by many powerful nations, they derive security, not from obsequiousness, but from their martial enterprise. The neighboring Reudigni, [211] and the Avions, [212] Angli, [213] Varini, Eudoses, Suardones, and Nuithones, [214] are defended by rivers or forests. Nothing remarkable occurs in any of these; except that they unite in the worship of Hertha, [215] or Mother Earth; and suppose her to interfere in the affairs of men, and to visit the different nations. In an island [216] of the ocean stands a sacred and unviolated grove, in which is a consecrated chariot, covered with a veil, which the priest alone is permitted to touch. He becomes conscious of the entrance of the goddess into this secret recess; and with profound veneration attends the vehicle, which is drawn by yoked cows. At this season, [217] all is joy; and every place which the goddess deigns to visit is a scene of festivity. No wars are undertaken; arms are untouched; and every hostile weapon is shut up. Peace abroad and at home are then only known; then only loved; till at length the same priest reconducts the goddess, satiated with mortal intercourse, to her temple. [218] The chariot, with its curtain, and, if we may believe it, the goddess herself, then undergo ablution in a secret lake. This office is performed by slaves, whom the same lake instantly swallows up. Hence proceeds a mysterious horror; and a holy ignorance of what that can be, which is beheld only by those who are about to perish. This part of the Suevian nation extends to the most remote recesses of Germany.

41. If we now follow the course of the Danube, as we before did that of the Rhine, we first meet with the Hermunduri; [219] a people faithful to the Romans, [220] and on that account the only Germans who are admitted to commerce, not on the bank alone, but within our territories, and in the flourishing colony [221] established in the province of Rhaetia. They pass and repass at pleasure, without being attended by a guard; and while we exhibit to other nations our arms and camps alone, to these we lay open our houses and country seats, which they behold without coveting. In the country of the Hermunduri rises the Elbe; [222] a river formerly celebrated and known among us, now only heard of by name.

42. Contiguous to the Hermunduri are the Narisci; [223] and next to them, the Marcomanni [224] and Quadi. [225] Of these, the Marcomanni are the most powerful and renowned; and have even acquired the country which they inhabit, by their valor in expelling the Boii. [226] Nor are the Narisci and Quadi inferior in bravery; [227] and this is, as it were, the van of Germany as far as it is bordered by the Danube. Within our memory the Marcomanni and Quadi were governed by kings of their own nation, of the noble line of Maroboduus [228] and Tudrus. They now submit even to foreigners; but all the power of their kings depends upon the authority of the Romans. [229] We seldom assist them with our arms, but frequently with our money; nor are they the less potent on that account.

43. Behind these are the Marsigni, [230] Gothini, [231] Osi, [232] and Burrii, [233] who close the rear of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Of these, the Marsigni and Burrii in language [234] and dress resemble the Suevi. The Gothini and Osi prove themselves not to be Germans; the first, by their use of the Gallic, the second, of the Pannonian tongue; and both, by their submitting to pay tribute: which is levied on them, as aliens, partly by the Sarmatians, partly by the Quadi. The Gothini, to their additional disgrace, work iron mines. [235] All these people inhabit but a small proportion of champaign country; their settlements are chiefly amongst forests, and on the sides and summits of mountains; for a continued ridge of mountains [236] separates Suevia from various remoter tribes. Of these, the Lygian [237] is the most extensive, and diffuses its name through several communities. It will be sufficient to name the most powerful of them -- the Arii, Helvecones, Manimi, Elysii, and Naharvali. [238] In the country of the latter is a grove, consecrated to religious rites of great antiquity. A priest presides over them, dressed in woman's apparel; but the gods worshipped there are said, according to the Roman interpretation, to be Castor and Pollux. Their attributes are the same; their name, Alcis. [239] No images, indeed, or vestiges of foreign superstition, appear in their worship; but they are revered under the character of young men and brothers. The Arii, fierce beyond the superiority of strength they possess over the other just enumerated people, improve their natural ferocity of aspect by artificial helps. Their shields are black; their bodies painted: [240] they choose the darkest nights for an attack; and strike terror by the funereal gloom of their sable bands -- no enemy being able to sustain their singular, and, as it were, infernal appearance; since in every combat the eyes are the first part subdued. Beyond the Lygii are the Gothones, [241] who live under a monarchy, somewhat more strict than that of the other German nations, yet not to a degree incompatible with liberty. Adjoining to these are the Rugii [242] and Lemovii, [243] situated on the sea-coast -- all these tribes are distinguished by round shields, short swords, and submission to regal authority.

44. Next occur the communities of the Suiones, [244] seated in the very Ocean, [245] who, besides their strength in men and arms, also possess a naval force. [246] The form of their vessels differs from ours in having a prow at each end, [247] so that they are always ready to advance. They make no use of sails, nor have regular benches of oars at the sides: they row, as is practised in some rivers, without order, sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, as occasion requires. These people honor wealth; [248] for which reason they are subject to monarchical government, without any limitations, [249] or precarious conditions of allegiance. Nor are arms allowed to be kept promiscuously, as among the other German nations: but are committed to the charge of a keeper, and he, too, a slave. The pretext is, that the Ocean defends them from any sudden incursions; and men unemployed, with arms in their hands, readily become licentious. In fact, it is for the king's interest not to entrust a noble, a freeman, or even an emancipated slave, with the custody of arms.

45. Beyond the Suiones is another sea, sluggish and almost stagnant, [250] by which the whole globe is imagined to be girt and enclosed, from this circumstance, that the last light of the setting sun continues so vivid till its rising, as to obscure the stars. [251] Popular belief adds, that the sound of his emerging [252] from the ocean is also heard; and the forms of deities, [253] with the rays beaming from his head, are beheld. Only thus far, report says truly, does nature extend. [254] On the right shore of the Suevic sea [255] dwell the tribes of the Aestii, [256] whose dress and customs are the same with those of the Suevi, but their language more resembles the British. [257] They worship the mother of the gods; [258] and as the symbol of their superstition, they carry about them the figures of wild boars. [250] This serves them in place of armor and every other defence: it renders the votary of the goddess safe even in the midst of foes. Their weapons are chiefly clubs, iron being little used among them. They cultivate corn and other fruits of the earth with more industry than German indolence commonly exerts. [260] They even explore the sea; and are the only people who gather amber, which by them is called Glese, [261] and is collected among the shallows and upon the shore. [262] With the usual indifference of barbarians, they have not inquired or ascertained from what natural object or by what means it is produced. It long lay disregarded [263] amidst other things thrown up by the sea, till our luxury [264] gave it a name. Useless to them, they gather it in the rough; bring it unwrought; and wonder at the price they receive. It would appear, however, to be an exudation from certain trees; since reptiles, and even winged animals, are often seen shining through it, which, entangled in it while in a liquid state, became enclosed as it hardened. [264] I should therefore imagine that, as the luxuriant woods and groves in the secret recesses of the East exude frankincense and balsam, so there are the same in the islands and continents of the West; which, acted upon by the near rays of the sun, drop their liquid juices into the subjacent sea, whence, by the force of tempests, they are thrown out upon the opposite coasts. If the nature of amber be examined by the application of fire, it kindles like a torch, with a thick and odorous flame; and presently resolves into a glutinous matter resembling pitch or resin. The several communities of the Sitones [266] succeed those of the Suiones; to whom they are similar in other respects, but differ in submitting to a female reign; so far have they degenerated, not only from liberty, but even from slavery. Here Suevia terminates.

46. I am in doubt whether to reckon the Peucini, Venedi, and Fenni among the Germans or Sarmatians; [267] although the Peucini, [268] who are by some called Bastarnae, agree with the Germans in language, apparel, and habitations. [269] All of them live in filth and laziness. The intermarriages of their chiefs with the Sarmatians have debased them by a mixture of the manners of that people. [270] The Venedi have drawn much from this source; [271] for they overrun in their predatory excursions all the woody and mountainous tracts between the Peucini and Fenni. Yet even these are rather to be referred to the Germans, since they build houses, carry shields, and travel with speed on foot; in all which particulars they totally differ from the Sarmatians, who pass their time in wagons and on horseback. [272] The Fenni [273] live in a state of amazing savageness and squalid poverty. They are destitute of arms, horses, and settled abodes: their food is herbs; [274] their clothing, skins; their bed, the ground. Their only dependence is on their arrows, which, for want of iron, are headed with bone; [275] and the chase is the support of the women as well as the men; the former accompany the latter in the pursuit, and claim a share of the prey. Nor do they provide any other shelter for their infants from wild beasts and storms, than a covering of branches twisted together. This is the resort of youth; this is the receptacle of old age. Yet even this way of life is in their estimation happier than groaning over the plough; toiling in the erection of houses; subjecting their own fortunes and those of others to the agitations of alternate hope and fear. Secure against men, secure against the gods, they have attained the most difficult point, not to need even a wish.

All our further accounts are intermixed with fable; as, that the Hellusii and Oxionae [276] have human faces, with the bodies and limbs of wild beasts. These unauthenticated reports I shall leave untouched. [277]

Footnotes for A Treatise on the Situation, Manners and Inhabitants of Germany.

[1] This treatise was written in the year of Rome 851, A.D. 98; during the fourth consulate of the emperor Nerva, and the third of Trajan.

[2] The Germany here meant is that beyond the Rhine. The Germania Cisrhenana, divided into the Upper and Lower, was a part of Gallia Belgica.

[3] Rhaetia comprehended the country of the Grisons, with part of Suabia and Bavaria.

[4] Lower Hungary, and part of Austria.

[5] The Carpathian mountains in Upper Hungary.

[6] "Broad promontories." Latos sinus. Sinus strictly signifies "a bending," especially inwards. Hence it is applied to a gulf, or bay, of the sea. And hence, again, by metonymy, to that projecting part of the land, whereby the gulf is formed; and still further to any promontory or peninsula. It is in this latter force it is here used; -- and refers especially to the Danish peninsula. See Livy xxvii, 30, xxxviii. 5; Servius on Virgil, Aen. xi. 626.

[7] Scandinavia and Finland, of which the Romans had a very slight knowledge, were supposed to be islands.

[8] The mountains of the Grisons. That in which the Rhine rises is at present called Vogelberg.

[9] Now called Schwartzwald, or the Black Forest. The name Danubius was given to that portion of the river which is included between its source and Vindobona (Vienna); throughout the rest of its course it was called Ister.

[10] Donec erumpat. The term erumpat is most correctly and graphically employed; for the Danube discharges its waters into the Euxine with so great force, that its course may be distinctly traced for miles out to sea.

[11] There are now but five.

[12] The ancient writers called all nations indigenae (i.e. inde geniti), or autochthones, "sprung from the soil," of whose origin they were ignorant.

[13] It is, however, well established that the ancestors of the Germans migrated by land from Asia. Tacitus here falls into a very common kind of error, in assuming a local fact (viz. the manner in which migrations took place in the basin of the Mediterranean) to be the expression of a general law. -- ED.

[14] Drusus, father of the emperor Claudius, was the first Roman general who navigated the German Ocean. The difficulties and dangers which Germanicus met with from the storms of this sea are related in the Annals, ii. 23.

[15] All barbarous nations, in all ages, have applied verse to the same use, as is still found to be the case among the North American Indians. Charlemagne, as we are told by Eginhart, "wrote out and committed to memory barbarous verses of great antiquity, in which the actions and wars of ancient kings were recorded."

[16] The learned Leibnitz supposes this Tuisto to have been the Teut or Teutates so famous throughout Gaul and Spain, who was a Celto-Scythian king or hero, and subdued and civilized a great part of Europe and Asia. Various other conjectures have been formed concerning him and his son Mannus, but most of them extremely vague and improbable. Among the rest, it has been thought that in Mannus and his three sons an obscure tradition is preserved of Adam, and his sons Cain, Abel, and Seth; or of Noah, and his sons Shem, Ham, and Japhet.

[17] Conringius interprets the names of the sons of Mannus into Ingäff, Istäf, and Hermin.

[18] Pliny, iv. 14, embraces a middle opinion between these, and mentions five capital tribes. The Vindili, to whom belong the Burgundiones, Varini, Carini, and Guttones; the Ingaevones, including the Cimbri, Teutoni, and Chauci; the Istaevones, near the Rhine, part of whom are the midland Cimbri; the Hermiones, containing the Suevi, Hermunduri, Catti, and Cherusci; and the Peucini and Bastarnae, bordering upon the Dacians.

[19] The Marsi appear to have occupied various portions of the northwest part of Germany at various times. In the time of Tiberius (A.D. 14) they sustained a great slaughter from the forces of Germanicus, who ravaged their country for fifty miles with fire and sword, sparing neither age nor sex, neither things profane nor sacred. (See Ann. i. 51.) At this period they were occupying the country in the neighborhood of the Rura (Ruhr), a tributary of the Rhine. Probably this slaughter was the destruction of them as a separate people; and by the time that Trajan succeeded to the imperial power they seem to have been blotted out from amongst the Germanic tribes. Hence their name will not be found in the following account of Germany.

[20] These people are mentioned by Strabo, vii. 1, 3. Their locality is not very easy to determine.

[21] See note, c. 38.

[22] The Vandals are said to have derived their name from the German word wendeln, "to wander." They began to be troublesome to the Romans A.D. 160, in the reigns of Aurelius and Verus. In A.D. 410 they made themselves masters of Spain in conjunction with the Alans and Suevi, and received for their share what from them was termed Vandalusia (Andalusia). In A.D. 429 they crossed into Africa under Genseric, who not only made himself master of Byzacium, Gaetulia, and part of Numidia, but also crossed over into Italy, A.D. 455, and plundered Rome. After the death of Genseric the Vandal power declined.

[23] That is, those of the Marsi, Gambrivii, etc. Those of Ingaevones, Istaevones, and Hermiones, were not so much names of the people, as terms expressing their situation. For, according to the most learned Germans, the Ingaevones are die Inwohner, those dwelling inwards, towards the sea; the Istaevones, die Westwohner, the inhabitants of the western parts: and the Hermiones, die Herumwohner, the midland inhabitants.

[24] It is however found in an inscription so far back as the year of Rome 531, before Christ 222, recording the victory of Claudius Marcellus over the Galli Insubres and their allies the Germans, at Clastidium, now Chiastezzo in the Milanese.

[25] This is illustrated by a passage in Caesar, Bell. Gall. ii. 4, where, after mentioning that several of the Belgae were descended from the Germans who had formerly crossed the Rhine and expelled the Gauls, he says, "the first of these emigrants were the Condrusii, Eburones, Caeresi and Paemani, who were called by the common name of Germans." The derivation of German is Wehr mann, a warrior, or man of war. This appellation was first used by the victorious Cisrhenane tribes, but not by the whole Transrhenane nation, till they gradually adopted it, as equally due to them on account of their military reputation. The Tungri were formerly a people of great name, the relics of which still exist in the extent of the district now termed the ancient diocese of Tongres.

[26] Under this name Tacitus speaks of some German deity, whose attributes corresponded in the main with those of the Greek and Roman Hercules. What he was called by the Germans is a matter of doubt. -- White.

[27] Quem barditum vocant. The word barditus is of Gallic origin, being derived from bardi, "bards;" it being a custom with the Gauls for bards to accompany the army, and celebrate the heroic deeds of their great warriors; so that barditum would thus signify "the fulfilment of the bard's office." Hence it is clear that barditum could not be used correctly here, inasmuch as amongst the Germans not any particular, appointed, body of men, but the whole army chanted forth the war-song. Some editions have baritum, which is said to be derived from the German word beren, or baeren, "to shout;" and hence it is translated in some dictionaries as, "the German war-song." From the following passage extracted from Facciolati, it would seem, however, that German critics repudiate this idea: "De barito clamore bellico, seu, ut quaedam habent exemplaria, bardito, nihil audiuimus nunc in Germaniâ: nisi hoc dixerimus, quòd bracht, vel brecht, milites Germani appellare consueverunt; concursum videlicet certantium, et clamorem ad pugnam descendentium; quem bar, bar, bar, sonuisse nonnulli affirmant." -- (Andr. Althameri, Schol. in C. Tacit De Germanis.) Ritter, himself a German, affirms that baritus is a reading worth nothing; and that barritus was not the name of the ancient German war-song, but of the shout raised by the Romans in later ages when on the point of engaging; and that it was derived "a clamore barrorem, i.e. elephantorum." The same learned editor considers that the words "quem barditum vocant" have been originally the marginal annotation of some unsound scholar, and have been incorporated by some transcriber into the text of his MS. copy, whence the error has spread. He therefore encloses them between brackets, to show that, in his judgment, they are not the genuine production of the pen of Tacitus. -- White.

[28] A very curious coincidence with the ancient German opinion concerning the prophetic nature of the war-cry or song, appears in the following passage of the Life of Sir Ewen Cameron, in "Pennant's Tour," 1769, Append, p. 363. At the battle of Killicrankie, just before the fight began, "he (Sir Ewen) commanded such of the Camerons as were posted near him to make a great shout, which being seconded by those who stood on the right and left, ran quickly through the whole army, and was returned by the enemy. But the noise of the muskets and cannon, with the echoing of the hills, made the Highlanders fancy that their shouts were much louder and brisker than those of the enemy, and Lochiel cried out, 'Gentlemen, take courage, the day is ours: I am the oldest commander in the army, and have always observed something ominous and fatal in such a dull, hollow and feeble noise as the enemy made in their shout, which prognosticates that they are all doomed to die by our hands this night; whereas ours was brisk, lively and strong, and shows we have vigor and courage.' These words, spreading quickly through the army, animated the troops in a strange manner. The event justified the prediction; the Highlanders obtained a complete victory."

[29] Now Asburg in the county of Meurs.

[30] The Greeks, by means of their colony at Marseilles, introduced their letters into Gaul, and the old Gallic coins have many Greek characters in their inscriptions. The Helvetians also, as we are informed by Caesar, used Greek letters. Thence they might easily pass by means of commercial intercourse to the neighboring Germans. Count Marsili and others have found monuments with Greek inscriptions in Germany, but not of so early an age.

[31] The large bodies of the Germans are elsewhere taken notice of by Tacitus, and also by other authors. It would appear as if most of them were at that time at least six feet high. They are still accounted some of the tallest people in Europe.

[32] Bavaria and Austria.

[33] The greater degree of cold when the country was overspread with woods and marshes, made this observation more applicable than at present. The same change of temperature from clearing and draining the land has taken place in North America. It may be added, that the Germans, as we are afterwards informed, paid attention to no kind of culture but that of corn.

[34] The cattle of some parts of Germany are at present remarkably large; so that their former smallness must have rather been owing to want of care in feeding them and protecting them from the inclemencies of winter, and in improving the breed by mixtures, than to the nature of the climate.

[35] Mines both of gold and silver have since been discovered in Germany; the former, indeed, inconsiderable; but the latter, valuable.

[36] As vice and corruption advanced among the Romans, their money became debased and adulterated. Thus Pliny, xxxiii. 3, relates, that "Livius Drusus during his tribuneship, mixed an eighth part of brass with the silver coin;" and ibid. 9, "that Antony the triumvir mixed iron with the denarius: that some coined base metal, others diminished the pieces, and hence it became an art to prove the goodness of the denarii." One precaution for this purpose was cutting the edges like the teeth of a saw, by which means it was seen whether the metal was the same quite through, or was only plated. These were the Serrati, or serrated Denarii. The Bigati were those stamped with the figure of a chariot drawn by two horses, as were the Quadrigati with a chariot and four horses. These were old coin, of purer silver than those of the emperors. Hence the preference of the Germans for certain kinds of species was founded on their apprehension of being cheated with false money.

[37] The Romans had the same predilection for silver coin, and probably on the same account originally. Pliny, in the place above cited, expresses his surprise that "the Roman people had always imposed a tribute in silver on conquered nations; as at the end of the second Punic war, when they demanded an annual payment in silver for fifty years, without any gold."

[38] Iron was in great abundance in the bowels of the earth; but this barbarous people had neither patience, skill, nor industry to dig and work it. Besides, they made use of weapons of stone, great numbers of which are found in ancient tombs and barrows.

[39] This is supposed to take its name from pfriem or priem, the point of a weapon. Afterwards, when iron grew more plentiful, the Germans chiefly used swords.

[40] It appears, however, from Tacitus's Annals, ii. 14, that the length of these spears rendered them unmanageable in an engagement among trees and bushes.

[41] Notwithstanding the manner of fighting is so much changed in modern times, the arms of the ancients are still in use. We, as well as they, have two kinds of swords, the sharp-pointed, and edged (small sword and sabre). The broad lance subsisted till lately in the halberd; the spear and framea in the long pike and spontoon; the missile weapons in the war hatchet, or North American tomahawk. There are, besides, found in the old German barrows, perforated stone balls, which they threw by means of thongs passed through them.

[42] Nudi. The Latin nudus, like the Greek gemnos, does not point out a person devoid of all clothing, but merely one without an upper garment -- clad merely in a vest or tunic, and that perhaps a short one. -- White.

[43] This decoration at first denoted the valor, afterwards the nobility, of the bearer; and in process of time gave origin to the armorial ensigns so famous in the ages of chivalry. The shields of the private men were simply colored; those of the chieftains had the figures of animals painted on them.

[44] Plutarch, in his Life of Marius, describes somewhat differently the arms and equipage of the Cimbri. "They wore (says he) helmets representing the heads of wild beasts, and other unusual figures, and crowned with a winged crest, to make them appear taller. They were covered with iron coats of mail, and carried white glittering shields. Each had a battle- axe; and in close fight they used large heavy swords." But the learned Eccard justly observes, that they had procured these arms in their march; for the Holsatian barrows of that age contain few weapons of brass, and none of iron; but stone spear-heads, and instead of swords, the wedgelike bodies vulgarly called thunderbolts.

[46] Casques (cassis) are of metal; helmets (galea) of leather -- Isidorus.

[46] This mode of fighting is admirably described by Caesar. "The Germans engaged after the following manner: -- There were 6,000 horse, and an equal number of the swiftest and bravest foot; who were chosen, man by man, by the cavalry, for their protection. By these they were attended in battle; to these they retreated; and, these, if they were hard pressed, joined them in the combat. If any fell wounded from their horses, by these they were covered. If it were necessary to advance or retreat to any considerable distance, such agility had they acquired by exercise, that, supporting themselves by the horses' manes, they kept pace with them." -- Bell. Gall. i. 48.

[47] To understand this, it is to be remarked, that the Germans were divided into nations or tribes, -- these into cantons, and these into districts or townships. The cantons (pagi in Latin) were called by themselves gauen. The districts or townships (vici) were called hunderte, whence the English hundreds. The name given to these select youth, according to the learned Dithmar, was die hunderte, hundred men. From the following passage in Caesar, it appears that in the more powerful tribes a greater number was selected from each canton. "The nation of the Suevi is by far the greatest and most warlike of the Germans. They are said to inhabit a hundred cantons; from each of which a thousand men are sent annually to make war out of their own territories. Thus neither the employments of agriculture, nor the use of arms are interrupted." -- Bell. Gall. iv. 1. The warriors were summoned by the heribannum, or army- edict; whence is derived the French arrière-ban.

[48] A wedge is described by Vegetius (iii. 19,) as a body of infantry, narrow in front, and widening towards the rear; by which disposition they were enabled to break the enemy's ranks, as all their weapons were directed to one spot. The soldiers called it a boar's head.

[49] It was also considered as the height of injury to charge a person with this unjustly. Thus, by the Salic law, tit. xxxiii, 5, a fine of 600 denarii (about 9 l.) is imposed upon "every free man who shall accuse another of throwing down his shield, and running away, without being able to prove it."

[50] Vertot (Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscrip.) supposes that the French maires du palais had their origin from these German military leaders. If the kings were equally conspicuous for valor as for birth, they united the regal with the military command. Usually, however, several kings and generals were assembled in their wars. In this case, the most eminent commanded, and obtained a common jurisdiction in war, which did not subsist in time of peace. Thus Caesar (Bell. Gall. vi.) says, "In peace they have no common magistracy." A general was elected by placing him on a shield, and lifting him on the shoulders of the bystanders. The same ceremonial was observed in the election of kings.

[51] Hence Ambiorix, king of the Eburones, declare that "the nature of his authority was such, that the people had no less power over him, than he over the people." -- Caesar, Bell. Gall. v. The authority of the North American chiefs almost exactly similar.

[52] The power of life and death, however, was in the hands of magistrates. Thus Caesar: "When a state engages either in an offensive or defensive war, magistrates are chosen to preside over it, and exercise power of life and death." -- Bell. Gall. vi. The infliction of punishments was committed to the priests, in order to give them more solemnity, and render them less invidious.

[53] Effigiesque et signa quaedam. That effigies does not mean the images of their deities is proved by that is stated at chap. ix., viz. that they deemed it derogatory to their deities to represent them in human form; and, if in human form, we may argue, a fortiori, in the form of the lower animals. The interpretation of the passage will be best derived from Hist. iv. 22, where Tacitus says: -- "Depromptae silvis lucisve ferarum imagines, ut cuique genti inire praelium mos est." It would hence appear that these effigies and signa were images of wild animals, and were national standards preserved with religious care in sacred woods and groves, whence they were brought forth when the clan or tribe was about to take the field. -- White.

[54] They not only interposed to prevent the flight of their husbands and sons, but, in desperate emergencies, themselves engaged in battle. This happened on Marius's defeat of the Cimbri (hereafter to be mentioned); and Dio relates, that when Marcus Aurelius overthrew the Marcomanni, Quadi, and other German allies, the bodies of women in armor were found among the slain.

[55] Thus, in the army of Ariovistus, the women, with their hair dishevelled, and weeping, besought the soldiers not to deliver them captives to the Romans. -- Caesar, Bell. Gall. i.

[56] Relative to this, perhaps, is a circumstance mentioned by Suetonius in his Life of Augustus. "From some nations he attempted to exact a new kind of hostages, women: because he observed that those of the male sex were disregarded." -- Aug. xxi.

[57] See the same observation with regard to the Celtic women, in Plutarch, on the virtues of women. The North Americans pay a similar regard to their females.

[58] A remarkable instance of this is given by Caesar. "When he inquired of the captives the reason why Ariovistus did not engage, he learned, that it was because the matrons, who among the Germans are accustomed to pronounce, from their divinations, whether or not a battle will be favorable, had declared that they would not prove victorious, if they should fight before the new moon." -- Bell. Gall. i. The cruel manner in which the Cimbrian women performed their divinations is thus related by Strabo: "The women who follow the Cimbri to war, are accompanied by gray-haired prophetesses, in white vestments, with canvas mantles fastened by clasps, a brazen girdle, and naked feet. These go with drawn swords through the camp, and, striking down those of the prisoners that they meet, drag them to a brazen kettle, holding about twenty amphorae. This has a kind of stage above it, ascending on which, the priestess cuts the throat of the victim, and, from the manner in which the blood flows into the vessel, judges of the future event. Others tear open the bodies of the captives thus butchered, and, from inspection of the entrails, presage victory to their own party." -- Lib. vii.

[59] She was afterwards taken prisoner by Rutilius Gallicus. Statius, in his Sylvae, i. 4, refers to this event. Tacitus has more concerning her in his History, iv. 61.

[60] Viradesthis was a goddess of the Tungri; Harimella, another provincial deity; whose names were found by Mr. Pennant inscribed on altars at the Roman station at Burrens. These were erected by the German auxiliaries. -- Vide Tour in Scotland, 1772, part ii. p. 406.

[61] Ritter considers that here is a reference to the servile flattery of the senate as exhibited in the time of Nero, by the deification of Poppaea's infant daughter, and afterwards of herself. (See Ann. xv. 23, Dion. lxiii, Ann. xiv. 3.) There is no contradiction in the present passage to that found at Hist. iv. 61, where Tacitus says, "plerasque feminarum fatidicas et, augescente superstitione, arbitrantur deas;" i.e. they deem (arbitrantur) very many of their women possessed of prophetic powers, and, as their religious feeling increases, they deem (arbitrantur) them goddesses, i.e. possessed of a superhuman nature; they do not, however, make them goddesses and worship them, as the Romans did Poppaea and her infant, which is covertly implied in facerent deas. -- White.

[62] Mercury, i.e. a god whom Tacitus thus names, because his attributes resembled those of the Roman Mercury. According to Paulus Diaconus (de Gestis Langobardorum, i. 9), this deity was Wodun, or Gwodan, called also Odin. Mallet (North. Ant. ch. v.) says, that in the Icelandic mythology he is called "the terrible and severe God, the Father of Slaughter, he who giveth victory and receiveth courage in the conflict, who nameth those that are to be slain." "The Germans drew their gods by their own character, who loved nothing so much themselves as to display their strength and power in battle, and to signalize their vengeance upon their enemies by slaughter and desolation." There remain to this day some traces of the worship paid to Odin in the name given by almost all the people of the north to the fourth day of the week, which was formerly consecrated to him. It is called by a name which signifies "Odin's day;" "Old Norse, Odinsdagr; Swedish and Danish, Onsdag; Anglo-Saxon, Wodenesdaeg, Wodnesdaeg; Dutch, Woensdag; English, Wednesday. As Odin or Wodun was supposed to correspond to the Mercury of the Greeks and Romans, the name of this day was expressed in Latin Dies Mercurii." -- White.

[63] "The appointed time for these sacrifices," says Mallet (North. Ant. ch. vi.), "was always determined by a superstitious opinion which made the northern nations regard the number 'three' as sacred and particularly dear to the gods. Thus, in every ninth month they renewed the bloody ceremony, which was to last nine days, and every day they offered up nine living victims, whether men or animals. But the most solemn sacrifices were those which were offered up at Upsal in Sweden every ninth year...." After stating the compulsory nature of the attendance at this festival, Mallet adds, "Then they chose among the captives in time of war, and among the slaves in time of peace, nine persons to be sacrificed. In whatever manner they immolated men, the priest always took care in consecrating the victim to pronounce certain words, as 'I devote thee to Odin,' 'I send thee to Odin.'" See Lucan i. 444.

"Et quibus immitis placatur sanguine diro Teutates, horrensque feris altaribus Hesus."

Teutates is Mercury, Hesus, Mars. So also at iii. 399, &c.

"Lucus erat longo nunquam violatus ab aevo. ... Barbara ritu Sacra Deum, structae diris altaribus arae, Omnis et humanis lustrata cruoribus arbor."

[64] That is, as in the preceding case, a deity whose attributes corresponded to those of the Roman Mars. This appears to have been not Thor, who is rather the representative of the Roman Jupiter, but Tyr, "a warrior god, and the protector of champions and brave men!" "From Tyr is derived the name given to the third day of the week in most of the Teutonic languages, and which has been rendered into Latin by Dies Martis. Old Norse, Tirsdagr, Tisdagr; Swedish, Tisdag; Danish, Tirsdag; German, Dienstag; Dutch, Dingsdag; Anglo-Saxon, Tyrsdaeg, Tyvesdag, Tivesdaeg; English, Tuesday" -- (Mallet's North. Ant. ch. v.) -- White.

[65] The Suevi appear to have been the Germanic tribes, and this also the worship spoken of at chap. xl. Signum in modum liburnae figuration corresponds with the vehiculum there spoken of; the real thing being, according to Ritter's view, a pinnace placed on wheels. That signum ipsum ("the very symbol") does not mean any image of the goddess, may be gathered also from ch. xl., where the goddess herself, si credere velis, is spoken of as being washed in the sacred lake.

[66] As the Romans in their ancient coins, many of which are now extant, recorded the arrival of Saturn by the stern of a ship; so other nations have frequently denoted the importation of a foreign religious rite by the figure of a galley on their medals.

[67] Tacitus elsewhere speaks of temples of German divinities (e.g. 40; Templum Nerthae, Ann. i. 51; Templum Tanfanae); but a consecrated grove, or any other sacred place, was called templum by the Romans.

[68] The Scythians are mentioned by Herodotus, and the Alans by Ammianus Marcellinus, as making use of these divining rods. The German method of divination with them is illustrated by what is said by Saxo-Grammaticus (Hist. Dan. xiv, 288) of the inhabitants of the Isle of Rugen in the Baltic Sea: "Throwing, by way of lots, three pieces of wood, white in one part, and black in another, into their laps, they foretold good fortune by the coming up of the white; bad by that of the black."

[69] The same practice obtained among the Persians, from whom the Germans appear to be sprung. Darius was elected king by the neighing of a horse; sacred white horses were in the army of Cyrus; and Xerxes, retreating after his defeat, was preceded by the sacred horses and consecrated chariot. Justin (i. 10) mentions the cause of this superstition, viz. that "the Persians believed the Sun to be the only God, and horses to be peculiarly consecrated to him." The priest of the Isle of Rugen also took auspices from a white horse, as may be seen in Saxo-Grammaticus.

[70] Montesquieu finds in this custom the origin of the duel, and of knight-errantry.

[71] This remarkable passage, so curious in political history, is commented on by Montesquieu, in his Spirit of Laws. vi 11. That celebrated author expresses his surprise at the existence of such a balance between liberty and authority in the forests of Germany; and traces the origin of the English constitution from this source. Tacitus again mentions the German form of government in his Annals, iv. 33.

[72] The high antiquity of this made of reckoning appears from the Book of Genesis. "The evening and the morning were the first day." The Gauls, we are informed by Caesar, "assert that, according to the tradition of their Druids, they are all sprung from Father Dis; on which account they reckon every period of time according to the number of nights, not of days; and observe birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such a manner, that the day seems to follow the night." (Bell. Gall. vi. 18.) The vestiges of this method of computation still appear in the English language, in the terms se'nnight and fort'night.

[73] Ut turbae placuit. Doederlein interprets this passage as representing the confused way in which the people took their seats in the national assembly, without reference to order, rank, age, &c. It rather represents, however, that the people, not the chieftains, determined when the business of the council should begin. -- White.

[74] And in an open plain. Vast heaps of stone still remaining, denote the scenes of these national councils. (See Mallet's Introduct. to Hist. of Denmark.) The English Stonehenge has been supposed a relic of this kind. In these assemblies are seen the origin of those which, under the Merovingian race of French kings, were called the Fields of March; under the Carlovingian, the Fields of May; then, the Plenary Courts of Christmas and Easter; and lastly, the States General.

[75] The speech of Civilis was received with this expression of applause. Tacitus, Hist. iv. 15.

[76] Gibbeted alive. Heavy penalties were denounced against those who should take them down, alive or dead. These are particularized in the Salic law.

[77] By cowards and dastards, in this passage, are probably meant those who, being summoned to war, refused or neglected to go. Caesar (Bell. Gall. vi. 22) mentions, that those who refused to follow their chiefs to war were considered as deserters and traitors. And, afterwards, the emperor Clothaire made the following edict, preserved in the Lombard law: "Whatever freeman, summoned to the defence of his country by his Count, or his officers, shall neglect to go, and the enemy enter the country to lay it waste, or otherwise damage our liege subjects, he shall incur a capital punishment." As the crimes of cowardice, treachery, and desertion were so odious and ignominious among the Germans, we find by the Salic law, that penalties were annexed to the unjust imputation of them.

[78] These were so rare and so infamous among the Germans, that barely calling a person by a name significant of them was severely punished.

[79] Incestuous people were buried alive in bogs in Scotland. Pennant's Tour in Scotland, 1772; part i. p. 351; and part ii. p. 421.

[80] Among these slighter offences, however, were reckoned homicide, adultery, theft, and many others of a similar kind. This appears from the laws of the Germans, and from a subsequent passage of Tacitus himself.

[81] These were at that time the only riches of the country, as was already observed in this treatise. Afterwards gold and silver became plentiful: hence all the mulcts required by the Salic law are pecuniary. Money, however, still bore a fixed proportion to cattle; as appears from the Saxon law (Tit. xviii.): "The Solidus is of two kinds; one contains two tremisses, that is, a beeve of twelve months, or a sheep with its lamb; the other, three tremisses, or a beeve of sixteen months. Homicide is compounded for by the lesser solidus; other crimes by the greater." The Saxons had their Weregeld, -- the Scotch their Cro, Galnes, and Kelchin, -- and the Welsh their Gwerth, and Galanus, or compensations for injuries; and cattle were likewise the usual fine. Vide Pennant's Tour in Wales of 1773, pp. 273, 274.

[82] This mulct is frequently in the Salic law called "fred," that is, peace; because it was paid to the king or state, as guardians of the public peace.

[83] A brief account of the civil economy of the Germans will here be useful. They were divided into nations; of which some were under a regal government, others a republican. The former had kings, the latter chiefs. Both in kingdoms and republics, military affairs were under the conduct of the generals. The nations were divided into cantons; each of which was superintended by a chief, or count, who administered justice in it. The cantons were divided into districts or hundreds, so called because they contained a hundred vills or townships. In each hundred was a companion, or centenary, chosen from the people, before whom small causes were tried. Before the count, all causes, as well great as small, were amenable. The centenaries are called companions by Tacitus, after the custom of the Romans; among whom the titles of honor were, Caesar, the Legatus or Lieutenant of Caesar, and his comites, or companions. The courts of justice were held in the open air, on a rising ground, beneath the shade of an oak, elm, or some other large tree.

[84] Even judges were armed on the seat of justice. The Romans, on the contrary, never went armed but when actually engaged in military service.

[85] These are the rudiments of the famous institution of chivalry. The sons of kings appear to have received arms from foreign princes. Hence, when Audoin, after overcoming the Gepidae, was requested by the Lombards to dine with his son Alboin, his partner in the victory, he refused; for, says he, "you know it is not customary with us for a king's son to dine with his father, until he has received arms from the king of another country." -- Warnefrid, De gestis Langobardorum, i. 23.

[86] An allusion to the toga virilis of the Romans. The German youth were presented with the shield and spear probably at twelve or fifteen years of age. This early initiation into the business of arms gave them that warlike character for which they were so celebrated. Thus, Seneca (Epist. 46) says, "A native of Germany brandishes, while yet a boy, his slender javelin." And again (in his book on Anger, i. 11), "Who are braver than the Germans? -- who more impetuous in the charge? -- who fonder of arms, in the use of which they are born and nourished, which are their only care? -- who more inured to hardships, insomuch that for the most part they provide no covering for their bodies, no retreat against the perpetual severity of the climate?"

[87] Hence it seems that these noble lads were deemed principes in rank, yet had their position among the comites only. The German word Gesell is peculiarly appropriated to these comrades in arms. So highly were they esteemed in Germany, that for killing or hurting them a fine was exacted treble to that for other freemen.

[88] Hence, when Chonodomarus, king of the Alamanni, was taken prisoner by the Romans, "his companions, two hundred in number, and three friends peculiarly attached to him, thinking it infamous to survive their prince, or not to die for him, surrendered themselves to be put in bonds." -- Ammianus Marcellinus, xvi. 13.

[89] Hence Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws, xxx, 3) justly derives the origin of vassalage. At first, the prince gave to his nobles arms and provision: as avarice advanced, money, and then lands, were required, which from benefices became at length hereditary possessions, and were called fiefs. Hence the establishment of the feudal system.

[90] Caesar, with less precision, says, "The Germans pass their whole lives in hunting and military exercises." (Bell. Gall, vi. 21.) The picture drawn by Tacitus is more consonant to the genius of a barbarous people: besides that, hunting being the employment but of a few months of the year, a greater part must necessarily be passed in indolence by those who had no other occupation. In this circumstance, and those afterwards related, the North American savages exactly agree with the ancient Germans.

[91] This apparent contradiction is, however, perfectly agreeable to the principles of human nature. Among people governed by impulse more than reason, everything is in the extreme: war and peace; motion and rest; love and hatred; none are pursued with moderation.

[92] These are the rudiments of tributes; though the contributions here spoken of were voluntary, and without compulsion. The origin of exchequers is pointed out above, where "part of the mulct" is said to be "paid to the king or state." Taxation was taught the Germans by the Romans, who levied taxes upon them.

[93] So, in after-times, when tributes were customary, 500 oxen or cows were required annually from the Saxons by the French kings Clothaire I. and Pepin. (See Eccard, tom. i. pp. 84, 480.) Honey, corn, and other products of the earth, were likewise received in tribute. (Ibid. p. 392.)

[94] For the expenses of war, and other necessities of state, and particularly the public entertainments. Hence, besides the Steora, or annual tribute, the Osterstuopha, or Easter cup, previous to the public assembly of the Field of March, was paid to the French kings.

[95] This was a dangerous lesson, and in the end proved ruinous to the Roman empire. Herodian says of the Germans in his time, "They are chiefly to be prevailed upon by bribes; being fond of money, and continually selling peace to the Romans for gold." -- Lib. vi. 139.

[96] This custom was of long duration; for there is not the mention of a single city in Ammianus Marcellinus, who wrote on the wars of the Romans in Germany. The names of places in Ptolemy (ii. 11) are not, therefore, those of cities, but of scattered villages. The Germans had not even what we should call towns, notwithstanding Caesar asserts the contrary.

[97] The space surrounding the house, and fenced in by hedges, was that celebrated Salic land, which descended to the male line, exclusively of the female.

[98] The danger of fire was particularly urgent in time of war; for, as Caesar informs us, these people were acquainted with a method of throwing red-hot clay bullets from slings, and burning javelins, on the thatch of houses. (Bell. Gall. v. 42.)

[99] Thus likewise Mela (ii. 1), concerning the Sarmatians: "On account of the length and severity of their winters, they dwell under ground, either in natural or artificial caverns." At the time that Germany was laid waste by a forty years' war, Kircher saw many of the natives who, with their flocks, herds, and other possessions, took refuge in the caverns of the highest mountains. For many other curious particulars concerning these and other subterranean caves, see his Mundus Subterraneus, viii. 3, p. 100. In Hungary, at this day, corn is commonly stored in subterranean chambers.

[100] Near Newbottle, the seat of the Marquis of Lothian, are some subterraneous apartments and passages cut out of the live rock, which had probably served for the same purposes of winter-retreats and granaries as those dug by the ancient Germans. Pennant's Tour in 1769, 4to, p.63.

[101] This was a kind of mantle of a square form, called also rheno. Thus Caesar (Bell. Gall. vi. 21): "They use skins for clothing, or the short rhenones, and leave the greatest part of the body naked." Isidore (xix. 23) describes the rhenones as "garments covering the shoulders and breast, as low as the navel, so rough and shaggy that they are impenetrable to rain." Mela (iii. 3), speaking of the Germans, says, "The men are clothed only with the sagum, or the bark of trees, even in the depth of winter."

[102] All savages are fond of variety of colors; hence the Germans spotted their furs with the skins of other animals, of which those here mentioned were probably of the seal kind. This practice is still continued with regard to the ermine, which is spotted with black lamb's-skin.

[103] The Northern Sea, and Frozen Ocean.

[104] Pliny testifies the same thing; and adds, that "the women beyond the Rhine are not acquainted with any more elegant kind of clothing." -- xix. 1.

[105] Not that rich and costly purple in which the Roman nobility shone, but some ordinary material, such as the vaccinium, which Pliny says was used by the Gauls as a purple dye for the garments of the slaves, (xvi. 18.)

[106] The chastity of the Germans, and their strict regard to the laws of marriage, are witnessed by all their ancient codes of law. The purity of their manners in this respect afforded a striking contrast to the licentiousness of the Romans in the decline of the empire, and is exhibited in this light by Salvian, in his treatise De Gubernatione Dei, lib. vii.

[107] Thus we find in Caesar (Bell. Gall. i. 53) that Ariovistus had two wives. Others had more. This indulgence proved more difficult to abolish, as it was considered as a mark of opulence, and an appendage of nobility.

[108] The Germans purchased their wives, as appears from the following clauses in the Saxon law concerning marriage: "A person who espouses a wife shall pay to her parents 300 solidi (about 180l. sterling); but if the marriage be without the consent of the parents, the damsel, however, consenting, he shall pay 600 solidi. If neither the parents nor damsel consent, that is, if she be carried off by violence, he shall pay 300 solidi to the parents, and 340 to the damsel, and restore her to her parents."

[109] Thus in the Saxon law, concerning dowries, it is said: "The Ostfalii and Angrarii determine, that if a woman have male issue, she is to possess the dower she received in marriage during her life, and transmit it to her sons."

[110] Ergo septae pudicitia agunt. Some editions have septa pudicitia. This would imply, however, rather the result of the care and watchfulness of their husbands; whereas it seems the object of Tacitus to show that this their chastity was the effect of innate virtue, and this is rather expressed by septae pudicitia, which is the reading of the Arundelian MS.

[111] Seneca speaks with great force and warmth on this subject: "Nothing is so destructive to morals as loitering at public entertainments; for vice more easily insinuates itself into the heart when softened by pleasure. What shall I say! I return from them more covetous ambitious, and luxurious." -- Epist. vii.

[112] The Germans had a great regard for the hair, and looked upon cutting it off as a heavy disgrace; so that this was made a punishment for certain crimes, and was resented as an injury if practised upon an innocent person.

[113] From an epistle of St. Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, to Ethelbald, king of England, we learn that among the Saxons the women themselves inflicted the punishment for violated chastity; "In ancient Saxony (now Westphalia), if a virgin pollute her father's house, or a married woman prove false to her vows, sometimes she is forced to put an end to her own life by the halter, and over the ashes of her burned body her seducer is hanged: sometimes a troop of females assembling lead her through the circumjacent villages, lacerating her body, stripped to the girdle, with rods and knives; and thus, bloody and full of minute wounds, she is continually met by new tormenters, who in their zeal for chastity do not quit her till she is dead, or scarcely alive, in order to inspire a dread of such offences." See Michael Alford's Annales Ecclesiae Anglo-Saxon., and Eccard.

[114] A passage in Valerius Maximus renders it probable that the Cimbrian states were of this number: "The wives of the Teutones besought Marius, after his victory, that he would deliver them as a present to the Vestal virgins; affirming that they should henceforth, equally with themselves, abstain from the embraces of the other sex. This request not being granted, they all strangled themselves the ensuing night." -- Lib. vi. 1.3.

[115] Among the Heruli, the wife was expected to hang herself at once at the grave of her husband, if she would not live in perpetual infamy.

[116] This expression may signify as well the murder of young children, as the procurement of abortion; both which crimes were severely punished by the German laws.

[117] Quemquam ex agnatis. By agnatigenerally in Roman law were meant relations by the father's side; here it signifies children born after there was already an heir to the name and property of the father.

[118] Justin has a similar thought concerning the Scythians: "Justice is cultivated by the dispositions of the people, not by the laws." (ii. 2.) How inefficacious the good laws here alluded to by Tacitus were in preventing enormities among the Romans, appears from the frequent complaints of the senators, and particularly of Minucius Felix; "I behold you, exposing your babes to the wild beasts and birds, or strangling the unhappy wretches with your own hands. Some of you, by means of drugs, extinguish the newly-formed man within your bowels, and thus commit parricide on your offspring before you bring them into the world." (Octavius, c. 30.) So familiar was this practice grown at Rome, that the virtuous Pliny apologises for it, alleging that "the great fertility of some women may require such a licence." -- xxix. 4, 37.

[119] Nudi ac sordidi does not mean "in nakedness and filth," as most translators have supposed. Personal filth is inconsistent with the daily practice of bathing mentioned c. 22; and nudus does not necessarily imply absolute nakedness (see note 4, p. 293).

[120] This age appears at first to have been twelve years; for then a youth became liable to the penalties of law. Thus in the Salic law it is said, "If a child under twelve commit a fault, 'fred,' or a mulct, shall not be required of him." Afterwards the term was fifteen years of age. Thus in the Ripuary law, "A child under fifteen shall not be responsible." Again, "If a man die, or be killed, and leave a son; before he have completed his fifteenth year, he shall neither prosecute a cause, nor be called upon to answer in a suit: but at this term, he must either answer himself, or choose an advocate. In like manner with regard to the female sex." The Burgundian law provides to the same effect. This then was the term of majority, which in later times, when heavier armor was used, was still longer delayed.

[121] This is illustrated by a passage in Caesar (Bell. Gall. vi. 21): "They who are the latest in proving their virility are most commended. By this delay they imagine the stature is increased, the strength improved, and the nerves fortified. To have knowledge of the other sex before twenty years of age, is accounted in the highest degree scandalous."

[122] Equal not only in age and constitution, but in condition. Many of the German codes of law annex penalties to those of both sexes who marry persons of inferior rank.

[123] Hence, in the history of the Merovingian kings of France, so many instances of regard to sisters and their children appear, and so many wars undertaken on their account.

[124] The court paid at Rome to rich persons without children, by the Haeredipetae, or legacy-hunters, is a frequent subject of censure and ridicule with the Roman writers.

[125] Avengers of blood are mentioned in the law of Moses, Numb. xxxv. 19. In the Roman law also, under the head of "those who on account of unworthiness are deprived of their inheritance," it is pronounced, that "such heirs as are proved to have neglected revenging the testator's death, shall be obliged to restore the entire profits."

[126] It was a wise provision, that among this fierce and warlike people, revenge should be commuted for a payment. That this intention might not be frustrated by the poverty of the offender, his whole family were conjointly bound to make compensation.

[127] All uncivilized nations agree in this property, which becomes less necessary as a nation improves in the arts of civil life.

[128] Convictibus et hospitiis. "Festivities and entertainments." The former word applies to friends and fellow-countrymen; the latter, to those not of the same tribe, and foreigners. Caesar (Bell. Gall. vi. 23) says, "They think it unlawful to offer violence to their guests, who, on whatever occasion they come to them, are protected from injury, and considered as sacred. Every house is open to them, and provision everywhere set before them." Mela (iii. 3) says of the Germans, "They make right consist in force, so that they are not ashamed of robbery: they are only kind to their guests, and merciful to suppliants. The Burgundian law lays a fine of three solidi on every man who refuses his roof or hearth to the coming guest." The Salic law, however, rightly forbids the exercise of hospitality to atrocious criminals; laying a penalty on the person who shall harbor one who has dug up or despoiled the dead? till he has made satisfaction to the relations.

[129] The clause here put within brackets is probably misplaced; since it does not connect well either with what goes before or what follows.[130] The Russians are at present the most remarkable among the northern nations for the use of warm bathing. Some of the North American tribes also have their hypocausts, or stoves.

[131] Eating at separate tables is generally an indication of voracity. Traces of it may be found in Homer, and other writers who have described ancient manners. The same practice has also been observed among the people of Otaheite; who occasionally devour vast quantities of food.

[132] The following article in the Salic law shows at once the frequency of these bloody quarrels, and the laudable endeavors of the legislature to restrain them; -- "If at a feast where there are four or five men in company, one of them be killed, the rest shall either convict one as the offender, or shall jointly pay the composition for his death. And this law shall extend to seven persons present at an entertainment."

[133] The same custom is related by Herodotus, i. p. 66, as prevailing among the Persians.

[134] Of this liquor, beer or ale, Pliny speaks in the following passage: "The western nations have their intoxicating liquor, made of steeped grain. The Egyptians also invented drinks of the same kind. Thus drunkenness is a stranger in no part of the world; for these liquors are taken pure, and not diluted as wine is. Yet, surely, the Earth thought she was producing corn. Oh, the wonderful sagacity of our vices! we have discovered how to render even water intoxicating." -- xiv. 22.

[135] Mela says, "Their manner of living is so rude and savage, that they eat even raw flesh; either fresh killed, or softened by working with their hands and feet, after it has grown stiff in the hides of tame or wild animals." (iii. 3.) Florus relates that the ferocity of the Cimbri was mitigated by their feeding on bread and dressed meat, and drinking wine, in the softest tract of Italy. -- iii. 3.

[136] This must not be understood to have been cheese; although Caesar says of the Germans, "Their diet chiefly consists of milk, cheese and flesh." (Bell. Gall. vi. 22.) Pliny, who was thoroughly acquainted with the German manners, says more accurately, "It is surprising that the barbarous nations who live on milk should for so many ages have been ignorant of, or have rejected, the preparation of cheese; especially since they thicken their milk into a pleasant tart substance, and a fat butter: this is the scum of milk, of a thicker consistence than what is called the whey. It must not be omitted that it has the properties of oil, and is used as an unguent by all the barbarians, and by us for children." -- xi. 41.

[137] This policy has been practised by the Europeans with regard to the North American savages, some tribes of which have been almost totally extirpated by it.

[138] St. Ambrose has a remarkable passage concerning this spirit of gaming among a barbarous people: -- "It is said that the Huns, who continually make war upon other nations, are themselves subject to usurers, with whom they run in debt at play; and that, while they live without laws, they obey the laws of the dice alone; playing when drawn up in line of battle; carrying dice along with their arms, and perishing more by each others' hands than by the enemy. In the midst of victory they submit to become captives, and suffer plunder from their own countrymen, which they know not how to bear from the foe. On this account they never lay aside the business of war, because, when they have lost all their booty by the dice, they have no means of acquiring fresh supplies for play, but by the sword. They are frequently borne away with such a desperate ardor, that, when the loser has given up his arms, the only part of his property which he greatly values, he sets the power over his life at a single cast to the winner or usurer. It is a fact, that a person, known to the Roman emperor, paid the price of a servitude which he had by this means brought upon himself, by suffering death at the command of his master."

[139] The condition of these slaves was the same as that of the vassals, or serfs, who a few centuries ago made the great body of the people in every country in Europe. The Germans, in after times, imitating the Romans, had slaves of inferior condition, to whom the name of slave became appropriated; while those in the state of rural vassalage were called lidi.

[140] A private enemy could not be slain with impunity, since a fine was affixed to homicide; but a man might kill his own slave without any punishment. If, however, he killed another person's slave, he was obliged to pay his price to the owner.

[141] The amazing height of power and insolence to which freedmen arrived by making themselves subservient to the vices of the prince, is a striking characteristic of the reigns of some of the worst of the Roman emperors.

[142] In Rome, on the other hand, the practice of usury was, as our author terms it, "an ancient evil, and a perpetual source of sedition and discord." -- Annals, vi. 16.

[143] All the copies read per vices, "by turns," or alternately; but the connection seems evidently to require the easy alteration of per vicos, which has been approved by many learned commentators, and is therefore adopted in this translation.

[144] Caesar has several particulars concerning this part of German polity. "They are not studious of agriculture, the greater part of their diet consisting of milk, cheese, and flesh; nor has any one a determinate portion of land, his own peculiar property; but the magistrates and chiefs allot every year to tribes and clanships forming communities, as much land, and in such situations, as they think proper, and oblige them to remove the succeeding year. For this practice they assign several reasons: as, lest they should be led, by being accustomed to one spot, to exchange the toils of war for the business of agriculture; lest they should acquire a passion for possessing extensive domains, and the more powerful should be tempted to dispossess the weaker; lest they should construct buildings with more art than was necessary to protect them from the inclemencies of the weather; lest the love of money should arise amongst them, the source of faction and dissensions; and in order that the people, beholding their own possessions equal to those of the most powerful, might be retained by the bonds of equity and moderation." -- Bell. Gall. vi. 21.

[145] The Germans, not planting fruit-trees, were ignorant of the proper products of autumn. They have now all the autumnal fruits of their climate; yet their language still retains a memorial of their ancient deficiencies, in having no term for this season of the year, but one denoting the gathering in of corn alone -- Herbst, Harvest.

[146] In this respect, as well as many others, the manners of the Germans were a direct contrast to those of the Romans. Pliny mentions a private person, C. Caecilius Claudius Isidorus, who ordered the sum of about 10,000l. sterling to be expended in his funeral: and in another place he says, "Intelligent persons asserted that Arabia did not produce such a quantity of spices in a year as Nero burned at the obsequies of his Poppaea." -- xxxiii. 10, and xii. 18.

[147] The following lines of Lucan, describing the last honors paid by Cornelia to the body of Pompey the Great, happily illustrate the customs here referred to: --

Collegit vestes, miserique insignia Magni. Armaque, et impressas auro, quas gesserat olim Exuvias, pictasque togas, velamina summo Ter conspecta Jovi, funestoque intulit igni. -- Lib. ix. 175.

"There shone his arms, with antique gold inlaid, There the rich robes which she herself had made, Robes to imperial Jove in triumph thrice display'd: The relics of his past victorious days, Now this his latest trophy serve to raise, And in one common flame together blaze." -- ROWE.

[148] Thus in the tomb of Childeric, king of the Franks, were found his spear and sword, and also his horse's head, with a shoe, and gold buckles and housings. A human skull was likewise discovered, which, perhaps, was that of his groom.

[149] Caesar's account is as follows: -- "There was formerly a time when the Gauls surpassed the Germans in bravery, and made war upon them; and, on account of their multitude of people and scarcity of land, sent colonies beyond the Rhine. The most fertile parts of Germany, adjoining to the Hercynian forest, (which, I observe, was known by report to Eratosthenes and others of the Greeks, and called by them Orcinia,) were accordingly occupied by the Volcae and Tectosages, who settled there. These people still continue in the same settlements, and have a high character as well for the administration of justice as military prowess: and they now remain in the same state of penury and content as the Germans, whose manner of life they have adopted." -- Bell. Gall. vi. 24.

[150] The inhabitants of Switzerland, then extending further than at present, towards Lyons.

[151] A nation of Gauls, bordering on the Helvetii, as appears from Strabo and Caesar. After being conquered by Caesar, the Aedui gave them a settlement in the country now called the Bourbonnois. The name of their German colony, Boiemum, is still extant in Bohemia. The aera at which the Helvetii and Boii penetrated into Germany is not ascertained. It seems probable, however, that it was in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus; for at that time, as we are told by Livy, Ambigatus, king of the Bituriges (people of Berry), sent his sister's son Sigovesus into the Hercynian forest, with a colony, in order to exonerate his kingdom which was overpeopled. (Livy, v. 33; et seq.)

[152] In the time of Augustus, the Boii, driven from Boiemum by the Marcomanni, retired to Noricum, which from them was called Boioaria, now Bavaria.

[153] This people inhabited that part of Lower Hungary now called the Palatinate of Pilis.

[154] Towards the end of this treatise, Tacitus seems himself to decide this point, observing that their use of the Pannonian language, and acquiescence in paying tribute, prove the Osi not to be a German nation. They were settled beyond the Marcomanni and Quadi, and occupied the northern part of Transdanubian Hungary; perhaps extending to Silesia, where is a place called Ossen in the duchy of Oels, famous for salt and glass works. The learned Pelloutier, however, contends that the Osi were Germans; but with less probability.

[155] The inhabitants of the modern diocese of Treves.

[156] Those of Cambresis and Hainault.

[157] Those of the dioceses of Worms, Strasburg, and Spires.

[158] Those of the diocese of Cologne. The Ubii, migrating from Germany to Gaul, on account of the enmity of the Catti, and their own attachment to the Roman interest, were received under the protection of Marcus Agrippa, in the year of Rome 717. (Strabo, iv. p. 194.) Agrippina, the wife of Claudius and mother of Nero, who was born among them, obtained the settlement of a colony there, which was called after her name.

[159] Now the Betuwe, part of the provinces of Holland and Guelderland.

[160] Hence the Batavi are termed, in an ancient inscription, "the brothers and friends of the Roman people."

[161] This nation inhabited part of the countries now called the Weteraw, Hesse, Isenburg and Fulda. In this territory was Mattium, now Marpurg, and the Fontes Mattiaci, now Wisbaden, near Mentz.

[162] The several people of Germany had their respective borders, called marks or marches, which they defended by preserving them in a desert and uncultivated state. Thus Caesar, Bell. Gall. iv 3: -- "They think it the greatest honor to a nation, to have as wide an extent of vacant land around their dominions as possible; by which it is indicated, that a great number of neighboring communities are unable to withstand them. On this account, the Suevi are said to have, on one side, a tract of 600 (some learned men think we should read 60) miles desert for their boundaries." In another place Caesar mentions, as an additional reason for this policy, that they think themselves thereby rendered secure from the danger of sudden incursions. (Bell. Gall. vi. 13.)

[163] The difference between the low situation and moist air of Batavia, and the high and dry country of the Mattiaci, will sufficiently justify this remark, in the opinion of those who allow anything to the influence of climate.

[164] Now Swabia. When the Marcommanni, towards the end of the reign of Augustus, quitting their settlements near the Rhine, migrated to Bohemia, the lands they left vacant were occupied by some unsettled Gauls among the Rauraci and Sequani. They seem to have been called Decumates (Decimated), because the inhabitants, liable to the incursions of the Germans, paid a tithe of their products to be received under the protection of the Romans. Adrian defended them by a rampart, which extended from Neustadt, a town on the Danube near the mouth of the river Altmühl, to the Neckar near Wimpfen; a space of sixty French leagues.

[165] Of Upper Germany.

[166] The Catti possessed a large territory between the Rhine, Mayne and Sala, and the Hartz forest on this side of the Weser; where are now the countries of Hesse, Thuringia, part of Paderborn, of Fulda, and of Franconia. Learned writers have frequently noted, that what Caesar, Florus and Ptolemy have said of the Suevi, is to be understood of the Catti. Leibnitz supposes the Catti were so called from the active animal which they resemble in name, the German for cat being Catte, or Hessen.

[167] Pliny, who was well acquainted with Germany, gives a very striking description of the Hercynian forest: -- "The vast trees of the Hercynian forest, untouched for ages, and as old as the world, by their almost immortal destiny exceed common wonders. Not to mention circumstances which would not be credited, it is certain that hills are raised by the repercussion of their meeting roots; and where the earth does not follow them, arches are formed as high as the branches, which, struggling, as it were, with each other, are bent into the form of open gates, so wide, that troops of horse may ride under them." -- xvi. 2.

[168] Duriora corpora. "Hardier frames;" i.e. than the rest of the Germans. At Hist. ii 32. the Germans, in general, are said to have fluxa corpora; while in c. 4 of this treatise they are described as tantùm ad impetum valida.

[169] Floras, ii. 18, well expresses this thought by the sentence "Tanti exercitus, quanti imperator." "An army is worth so much as its general is."

[170] Thus Civilis is said by our author (Hist. iv. 61), to have let his hair and beard grow in consequence of a private vow. Thus too, in Paul Warnefrid's "History of the Lombards," iii. 7, it is related, that "six thousand Saxons who survived the war, vowed that they would never cut their hair, nor shave their beards, till they had been revenged of their enemies, the Suevi." A later instance of this custom is mentioned by Strada (Bell. Belg. vii. p. 344), of William Lume, one of the Counts of Mark, "who bound himself by a vow not to cut his hair till he had revenged the deaths of Egmont and Horn."

[171] The iron ring seems to have been a badge of slavery. This custom was revived in later times, but rather with a gallant than a military intention. Thus, in the year 1414, John duke of Bourbon, in order to ingratiate himself with his mistress, vowed, together with sixteen knights and gentlemen, that they would wear, he and the knights a gold ring, the gentlemen a silver one, round their left legs, every Sunday for two years, till they had met with an equal number of knights and gentlemen to contend with them in a tournament. (Vertot, Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscr. tom. ii. p. 596.)

[172] It was this nation of Catti, which, about 150 years afterwards, uniting with the remains of the Cherusci on this side the Weser, the Attuarii, Sicambri, Chamavi, Bructeri, and Chauci, entered into the Francic league, and, conquering the Romans, seized upon Gaul. From them are derived the name, manners, and laws of the French.

[173] These two tribes, united by a community of wars and misfortunes, had formerly been driven from the settlements on the Rhine a little below Mentz. They then, according to Caesar (Bell. Gall. iv. 1, et seq.), occupied the territories of the Menapii on both sides the Rhine. Still proving unfortunate, they obtained the lands of the Sicambri, who, in the reign of Augustus, were removed on this side the Rhine by Tiberius: these were the present counties of Berg, Mark, Lippe, and Waldeck; and the bishopric of Paderborn.

[174] Their settlements were between the rivers Rhine, Lippe (Luppia), and Ems (Amisia), and the province of Friesland; now the countries of Westphalia and Over-Issel. Alting (Notit. German. Infer, p. 20) supposes they derived their name from Broeken, or Bruchen, marshes, on account of their frequency in that tract of country.

[175] Before this migration, the Chamavi were settled on the Ems, where at present are Lingen and Osnaburg; the Angrivarii, on the Weser (Visurgis), where are Minden and Schawenburg. A more ancient migration of the Chamavi to the banks of the Rhine is cursorily mentioned by Tacitus, Annal. xiii. 55. The Angrivarii were afterwards called Angrarii, and became part of the Saxon nation.

[176] They were not so entirely extirpated that no relics of them remained. They were even a conspicuous part of the Francic league, as before related. Claudian also, in his panegyric on the fourth consulate of Honorius, v. 450, mentions them.

Venit accola sylvae Bructerus Hercyniae.

"The Bructerian, borderer on the Hercynian forest, came."

After their expulsion, they settled, according to Eccard, between Cologne and Hesse.

[177] The Bructeri were under regal government, and maintained many wars against the Romans. Hence their arrogance and power. Before they were destroyed by their countrymen, Vestricius Spurinna terrified them into submission without an action, and had on that account a triumphal statue decreed him. Pliny the younger mentions this fact, book ii. epist. 7.

[178] An allusion to gladiatorial spectacles. This slaughter happened near the canal of Drusus, where the Roman guard on the Rhine could be spectators of the battle. The account of it came to Rome in the first year of Trajan.

[179] As this treatise was written in the reign of Trajan, when the affairs of the Romans appeared unusually prosperous, some critics have imagined that Tacitus wrote vigentibus, "flourishing," instead of urgentibus, "urgent." But it is sufficiently evident, from other passages, that the causes which were operating gradually, but surely, to the destruction of the Roman empire, did not escape the penetration of Tacitus, even when disguised by the most flattering appearances. The common reading is therefore, probably, right. -- Aikin.

[180] These people first resided near the head of the Lippe; and then removed to the settlements of the Chamavi and Angrivarii, who had expelled the Bructeri. They appear to have been the same with those whom Velleius Paterculus, ii. 105, calls the Attuarii, and by that name they entered into the Francic league. Strabo calls them Chattuarii.

[181] Namely, the Ansibarii and Tubantes. The Ansibarii or Amsibarii are thought by Alting to have derived their name from their neighborhood to the river Ems (Amisia); and the. Tubantes, from their frequent change of habitation, to have been called Tho Benten. or the wandering troops, and to have dwelt where now is Drente in Over-Issel. Among these nations, Furstenburg (Monum. Paderborn.) enumerates the Ambrones, borderers upon the river Ambrus, now Emmeren.

[182] The Frieslanders. The lesser Frisii were settled on this side, the greater, on the other, of the Flevum (Zuyderzee).

[183] In the time of the Romans this country was covered by vast meres, or lakes; which were made still larger by frequent inundations of the sea. Of these, one so late as 1530 overwhelmed seventy-two villages; and another, still more terrible, in 1569, laid under water great part of the sea-coast of Holland, and almost all Friesland, in which alone 20,000 persons were drowned.

[184] Wherever the land seemed to terminate, and it appeared impossible to proceed further, maritime nations have feigned pillars of Hercules. Those celebrated by the Frisians must have been at the extremity of Friesland, and not in Sweden and the Cimmerian promontory, as Rudbeck supposes.

[185] Drusus, the brother of Tiberius, and father of Germanicus, imposed a tribute on the Frisians, as mentioned in the Annals, iv. 72, and performed other eminent services in Germany; himself styled Germanicus.

[186] The Chauci extended along the seacoast from the Ems to the Elbe (Albis); whence they bordered on all the fore-mentioned nations, between which and the Cherusci they came round to the Catti. The Chauci were distinguished into Greater and Lesser. The Greater, according to Ptolemy, inhabited the country between the Weser and the Elbe; the Lesser, that between the Weser and Ems; but Tacitus (Annals xi. 19) seems to reverse this order. Alting supposes the Chauci had their name from Kauken, signifying persons eminent for valor and fidelity, which agrees with the character Tacitus gives them. Others derive it from Kauk, an owl, with a reference to the enmity of that animal to cats (Catti). Others, from Kaiten, daws, of which there are great numbers on their coast. Pliny has admirably described the country and manners of the maritime Chauci, in his account of people who live without any trees or fruit-bearing vegetables: -- "In the North are the nations of Chauci, who are divided into Greater and Lesser. Here, the ocean, having a prodigious flux and reflux twice in the space of every day and night, rolls over an immense tract, leaving it a matter of perpetual doubt whether it is part of the land or sea. In this spot, the wretched natives, occupying either the tops of hills, or artificial mounds of turf, raised out of reach of the highest tides, build their small cottages; which appear like sailing vessels when the water covers the circumjacent ground, and like wrecks when it has retired. Here from their huts they pursue the fish, continually flying from them with the waves. They do not, like their neighbors, possess cattle, and feed on milk; nor have they a warfare to maintain against wild beasts, for every fruit of the earth is far removed from them. With flags and seaweed they twist cordage for their fishing-nets. For fuel they use a kind of mud, taken up by hand, and dried, rather in the wind than the sun: with this earth they heat their food, and warm their bodies, stiffened by the rigorous north. Their only drink is rain-water collected in ditches at the thresholds of their doors. Yet this miserable people, if conquered to-day by the Roman arms, would call themselves slaves. Thus it is that fortune spares many to their own punishment." -- Hist. Nat. xvi. 1.

[187] On this account, fortified posts were established by the Romans to restrain the Chauci; who by Lucan are called Cayci in the following passage:

Et vos crinigeros bellis arcere Caycos Oppositi. -- Phars. i. 463.

"You, too, tow'rds Rome advance, ye warlike band, That wont the shaggy Cauci to withstand." -- ROWE

[188] The Cherusci, at that time, dwelt between the Weser and the Elbe, where now are Luneburg, Brunswick, and part of the Marche of Brandenburg on this side the Elbe. In the reign of Augustus they occupied a more extensive tract; reaching even this side the Weser, as appears from the accounts of the expedition of Drusus given by Dio and Velleius Paterculus: unless, as Dithmar observes, what is said of the Cherusci on this side the Weser relates to the Dulgibini, their dependents. For, according to Strabo, Varus was cut off by the Cherusci, and the people subject to them. The brave actions of Arminius, the celebrated chief of the Cherusci, are related by Tacitus in the 1st and 2d books of his Annals.

[189] Cluver, and several others, suppose the Fosi to have been the same with the ancient Saxons: but, since they bordered on the Cherusci, the opinion of Leibnitz is nearer the truth, that they inhabited the banks of the river Fusa, which enters the Aller (Allera) at Cellae; and were a sort of appendage to the Cherusci, as Hildesheim now is to Brunswick. The name of Saxons is later than Tacitus, and was not known till the reign of Antoninus Pius, at which period they poured forth from the Cimbric Chersonesus, and afterwards, in conjunction with the Angles, seized upon Britain.

[191] The name of this people still exists; and the country they inhabited is called the Cimbric Chersonesus, or Peninsula; comprehending Jutland, Sleswig, and Holstein. The renown and various fortune of the Cimbri is briefly, but accurately, related by Mallet in the "Introduction" to the "History of Denmark."

[192] Though at this time they were greatly reduced by migrations, inundations and wars, they afterwards revived; and from this storehouse of nations came forth the Franks, Saxons, Normans, and various other tribes, which brought all Europe under Germanic sway.

[193] Their fame spread through Germany, Gaul, Spain, Britain, Italy, and as far as the Sea of Azoph (Palus Maeotis), whither, according to Posidonius, they penetrated, and called the Cimmerian or Cimbrian Bosphorus after their own name.

[194] This is usually, and probably rightly, explained as relating to both shores of the Cimbric Chersonesus. Cluver and Dithmar, however, suppose that these encampments are to be sought for either in Italy, upon the river Athesis (Adige), or in Narbonnensian Gaul near Aquae Sextiae (Aix in Provence), where Florus (iii. 3) mentions that the Teutoni defeated by Marius took post in a valley with a river running through it. Of the prodigious numbers of the Cimbri who made this terrible irruption we have an account in Plutarch, who relates that their fighting men were 300,000, with a much greater number of women and children. (Plut. Marius, p. 411.)

[195] Nerva was consul the fourth time, and Trajan the second, in the 85lst year of Rome; in which Tacitus composed this treatise.

[196] After the defeat of P. Decidius Saxa, lieutenant of Syria, by the Parthians, and the seizure of Syria by Pacorus, son of king Orodes, P. Ventidius Bassus was sent there, and vanquished the Parthians, killed Pacorus, and entirely restored the Roman affairs.

[197] The Epitome of Livy informs us, that "in the year of Rome 640, the Cimbri, a wandering tribe, made a predatory incursion into Illyricum, where they routed the consul Papirius Carbo with his army." According to Strabo, it was at Noreia, a town of the Taurisci, near Aquileia, that Carbo was defeated. In the succeeding years, the Cimbri and Teutonia ravaged Gaul, and brought great calamities on that country; but at length, deterred by the unshaken bravery of the Gauls, they turned another way; as appears from Caesar, Bell. Gal. vii. 17. They then came into Italy, and sent ambassadors to the Senate, demanding lands to settle on. This was refused; and the consul M. Junius Silanus fought an unsuccessful battle with them, in the year of Rome 645. (Epitome of Livy, lxv.)

[198] "L. Cassius the consul, in the year of Rome 647, was cut off with his army in the confines of the Allobroges, by the Tigurine Gauls, a canton of the Helvetians (now the cantons of Zurich, Appenzell, Schaffhausen, &c.), who had migrated from their settlements. The soldiers who survived the slaughter gave hostages for the payment of half they were worth, to be dismissed with safety." (Ibid.) Caesar further relates that the Roman army was passed under the yoke by the Tigurini: -- "This single canton, migrating from home, within the memory of our fathers, slew the consul L. Cassius, and passed his army under the yoke." -- Bell. Gall. i. 12.

[199] M. Aurelius Scaurus, the consul's lieutenant (or rather consul, as he appears to have served that office in the year of Rome 646), was defeated and taken by the Cimbri; and when, being asked his advice, he dissuaded them from passing the Alps into Italy, assuring them the Romans were invincible, he was slain by a furious youth, named Boiorix. (Epit. Livy, lxvii.)

[200] Florus, in like manner, considers these two affairs separately: -- "Neither could Silanus sustain the first onset of the barbarians; nor Manlius, the second; nor Caepio, the third." (iii. 3.) Livy joins them together: -- "By the same enemy (the Cimbri) Cn. Manlius the consul, and Q. Servilius Caepio the proconsul, were defeated in an engagement, and both dispossessed of their camps." (Epit. lxvii.) Paulus Orosius relates the affair more particularly: -- "Manlius the consul, and Q. Caepio, proconsul, being sent against the Cimbri, Teutones, Tigurini, and Ambronae, Gaulish and German nations, who had conspired to extinguish the Roman empire, divided their respective provinces by the river Rhone. Here, the most violent dissensions prevailing between them, they were both overcome, to the great disgrace and danger of the Roman name. According to Antias, 80,000 Romans and allies were slaughtered. Caepio, by whose rashness this misfortune was occasioned, was condemned, and his property confiscated by order of the Roman people." (Lib. v. 16.) This happened in the year of Rome 649; and the anniversary was reckoned among the unlucky days.

[201] The Republic; in opposition to Rome when governed by emperors.

[202] This tragical catastrophe so deeply affected Augustus, that, as Seutonius informs us, "he was said to have let his beard and hair grow for several months; during which he at times struck his head against the doors, crying out, 'Varus, restore my legions!' and ever after kept the anniversary as a day of mourning." (Aug. s. 23.) The finest history piece, perhaps, ever drawn by a writer, is Tacitus's description of the army of Germanicus visiting the field of battle, six years after, and performing funeral obsequies to the scattered remains of their slaughtered countrymen. (Annals, i. 61.)

[203] "After so many misfortunes, the Roman people thought no general so capable of repelling such formidable enemies, as Marius." Nor was the public opinion falsified. In his fourth consulate, in the year of Rome 652. "Marius engaged the Teutoni beyond the Alps near Aquae Sextiae (Aix in Province), killing, on the day of battle and the following day, above 150,000 of the enemy, and entirely cutting off the Teutonic nation." (Velleus Paterculus, ii. 12.) Livy says there were 200,000 slain, and 90,000 taken prisoners. The succeeding year he defeated the Cimbri, who had penetrated into Italy and crossed the Adige, in the Raudian plain, where now is Rubio, killing and taking prisoners upwards of 100,000 men. That he did not, however, obtain an unbought victory over this warlike people, may be conjectured from the resistance he met with even from their women. We are told by Florus (iii. 3) that "he was obliged to sustain an engagement with their wives, as well as themselves; who, entrenching themselves on all sides with wagons and cars, fought from them, as from towers, with lances and poles. Their death was no less glorious than their resistance. For, when they could not obtain from Marius what they requested by an embassy, their liberty, and admission into the vestal priesthood (which, indeed, could not lawfully be granted); after strangling their infants, they either fell by mutual wounds, or hung themselves on trees or the poles of their carriages in ropes made of their own hair. King Boiorix was slain, not unrevenged, fighting bravely in the field." On account of these great victories, Marius, in the year of Borne 652, triumphed over the Teutoni, Ambroni, and Cimbri.

[204] In the 596th year of Rome, Julius Caesar defeated Ariovistus, a German king, near Dampierre in the Franche-Comte, and pursued his routed troops with great slaughter thirty miles towards the Rhine, filling all that space with spoils and dead bodies. (Bell. Gall. i. 33 and 52.) He had before chastised the Tigurini, who, as already mentioned, had defeated and killed L. Cassius. Drusus: This was the son of Livia, and brother of the emperor Tiberius. He was in Germany B.C. 12, 11. His loss was principally from shipwreck on the coast of the Chauci. See Lynam's Roman Emperors, i. 37, 45, Nero; i.e. Tiberius, afterwards emperor. His name was Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero. See Lynam's Roman Emperors, i. 51, 53, 62, 78. Germanicus: He was the son of Drusus, and so nephew of Tiberius. His victories in Germany took place A.D. 14-16. He too, like his father, was shipwrecked, and nearly at the same spot. See Lynam's Roman Emperors, i. 103-118.

[205] In the war of Civilis, related by Tacitus, Hist. iv. and v.

[206] By Domitian, as is more particularly mentioned in the Life of Agricola.

[207] The Suevi possessed that extensive tract of country lying between the Elbe, the Vistula, the Baltic Sea, and the Danube. They formerly had spread still further, reaching even to the Rhine. Hence Strabo, Caesar, Florus, and others, have referred to the Suevi what related to the Catti.

[208] Among the Suevi, and also the rest of the Germans, the slaves, seem to have been shaven; or at least cropped so short that they could not twist or tie up their hair in a knot.

[209] The Semnones inhabited both banks of the Viadrus (Oder); the country which is now part of Pomerania, of the Marche of Brandenburg, and of Lusatia.

[210] In the reign of Augustus, the Langobardi dwelt on this side the Elbe, between Luneburg and Magdeburg. When conquered and driven beyond the Elbe by Tiberius, they occupied that part of the country where are now Prignitz, Ruppin, and part of the Middle Marche. They afterwards founded the Lombard kingdom in Italy; which, in the year of Christ 774, was destroyed by Charlemagne, who took their king Desiderius, and subdued all Italy. The laws of the Langobardi are still extant, and may be met with in Lindenbrog. The Burgundians are not mentioned by Tacitus, probably because they were then an inconsiderable people. Afterwards, joining with the Langobardi, they settled on the Decuman lands and the Roman boundary. They from thence made an irruption into Gaul, and seized that country which is still named from them Burgundy. Their laws are likewise extant.

[211] From Tacitus's description, the Reudigni must have dwelt in part of the present duchy of Mecklenburg, and of Lauenburg. They had formerly been settled on this side the Elbe, on the sands of Luneburg.

[212] Perhaps the same people with those called by Mamertinus, in his Panegyric on Maximian, the Chaibones. From their vicinity to the fore- mentioned nations, they must have inhabited part of the duchy of Mecklenburg. They had formerly dwelt on this side the Elbe, on the banks of the river Ilmenavia in Luneburg; which is now called Ava; whence, probably, the name of the people.

[213] Inhabitants of what is now part of Holstein and Sleswig; in which tract is still a district called Angeln, between Flensborg and Sleswig. In the fifth century, the Angles, in conjunction with the Saxons, migrated into Britain, and perpetuated their name by giving appellation to England.

[214] From the enumeration of Tacitus, and the situation of the other tribes, it appears that the Eudoses must have occupied the modern Wismar and Rostock; the Suardones, Stralsund, Swedish Pomerania, and part of the Hither Pomerania, and of the Uckerane Marche. Eccard, however, supposes these nations were much more widely extended; and that the Eudoses dwelt upon the Oder; the Suardones, upon the Warte; the Nuithones, upon the Netze.

[215] The ancient name of the goddess Herth still subsists in the German Erde, and in the English Earth.

[216] Many suppose this island to have been the isle of Rugen in the Baltic sea. It is more probable, however, that it was an island near the mouth of the Elbe, now called the isle of Helgeland, or Heiligeland (Holy Island). Besides the proof arising from the name, the situation agrees better with that of the nations before enumerated.

[217] Olaus Rudbeck contends that this festival was celebrated in winter, and still continues in Scandinavia under the appellation of Julifred, the peace of Juul. (Yule is the term used for Christmas season in the old English and Scottish dialects.) But this feast was solemnized not in honor of the Earth, but of the Sun, called by them Thor or Taranium. The festival of Herth was held later, in the month of February; as may be seen in Mallet's "Introduction to the History of Denmark."

[218] Templo here means merely "the consecrated place," i.e. the grove before mentioned, for according to c.9 the Germans built no temples.

[219] It is supposed that this people, on account of their valor, were called Heermanner; corrupted by the Romans into Hermunduri. They were first settled between the Elbe, the Sala, and Bohemia; where now are Anhalt, Voightland, Saxony, part of Misnia, and of Franconia. Afterwards, when the Marcomanni took possession of Bohemia, from which the Boii had been expelled by Maroboduus, the Hermunduri added their settlements to their own, and planted in them the Suevian name, whence is derived the modern appellation of that country, Suabia.

[220] They were so at that time; but afterwards joined with the Marcomanni and other Germans against the Romans in the time of Marcus Aurelius, who overcame them.

[221] Augusta Vindelicorum, now Augsburg; a famous Roman colony in the province of Rhaetia, of which Vindelica was then a part.

[222] Tacitus is greatly mistaken if he confounds the source of the Egra, which is in the country of the Hermuduri, with that of the Elbe, which rises in Bohemia. The Elbe had been formerly, as Tacitus observes, well known to the Romans by the victories of Drusus, Tiberius, and Domitius; but afterwards, when the increasing power of the Germans kept the Roman arms at a distance, it was only indistinctly heard of. Hence its source was probably inaccurately laid down in the Roman geographical tables. Perhaps, however, the Hermunduri, when they had served in the army of Maroboduus, received lands in that part of Bohemia in which the Elbe rises; in which case there would be no mistake in Tacitus's account.

[223] Inhabitants of that part of Bavaria which lies between Bohemia and the Danube.

[224] Inhabitants of Bohemia.

[225] Inhabitants of Moravia, and the part of Austria between it and the Danube. Of this people, Ammianus Marcellinus, in his account of the reign of Valentinian and Valens, thus speaks: -- "A sudden commotion arose among the Quadi; a nation at present of little consequence, but which was formerly extremely warlike and potent, as their exploits sufficiently evince." -- xxix. 15.

[226] Their expulsion of the Boii, who had given name to Bohemia, has been already mentioned. Before this period, the Marcomanni dwelt near the sources of the Danube, where now is the duchy of Wirtemburg; and, as Dithmar supposes, on account of their inhabiting the borders of Germany, were called Marcmanner, from Marc (the same with the old English March) a border, or boundary.

[227] These people justified their military reputation by the dangerous war which, in conjunction with the Marcomanni, they excited against the Romans, in the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

[228] Of this prince, and his alliance with the Romans against Arminius, mention is made by Tacitus, Annals, ii.

[229] Thus Vannius was made king of the Quadi by Tiberius. (See Annals, ii. 63.) At a later period, Antoninus Pius (as appears from a medal preserved in Spanheim) gave them Furtius for their king. And when they had expelled him, and set Ariogaesus on the throne, Marcus Aurelius, to whom he was obnoxious, refused to confirm the election. (Dio, lxxi.)

[230] These people inhabited what is now Galatz, Jagerndorf, and part of Silesia.

[231] Inhabitants of part of Silesia, and of Hungary.

[232] Inhabitants of part of Hungary to the Danube.

[233] These were settled about the Carpathian mountains, and the sources of the Vistula.

[234] It is probable that the Suevi were distinguished from the rest of the Germans by a peculiar dialect, as well as by their dress and manners.

[235] Ptolemy mentions iron mines in or near the country of the Quadi. I should imagine that the expression "additional disgrace" (or, more literally, "which might make them more ashamed") does not refer merely to the slavery of working in mines, but to the circumstance of their digging up iron, the substance by means of which they might acquire freedom and independence. This is quite in the manner of Tacitus. The word iron was figuratively used by the ancients to signify military force in general. Thus Solon, in his well-known answer to Croesus, observed to him, that the nation which possessed more iron would be master of all his gold. -- Aikin.

[236] The mountains between Moravia, Hungary, Silesia, and Bohemia.

[237] The Lygii inhabited what is now part of Silesia, of the New Marche, of Prussia and Poland on this side the Vistula.

[238] These tribes were settled between the Oder and Vistula, where now are part of Silesia, of Brandenburg, and of Poland. The Elysii are supposed to have given name to Silesia.

[239] The Greeks and Romans, under the name of the Dioscuri, or Castor and Pollux, worshipped those meteorous exhalations which, during a storm, appear on the masts of ships, and are supposed to denote an approaching calm. A kind of religious veneration is still paid to this phenomenon by the Roman Catholics, under the appellation of the fire of St. Elmo. The Naharvali seem to have affixed the same character of divinity on the ignis fatuus; and the name Alcis is probably the same with that of Alff or Alp, which the northern nations still apply to the fancied Genii of the mountains. The Sarmatian deities Lebus and Polebus, the memory of whom still subsists in the Polish festivals, had, perhaps, the same origin.

[240] No custom has been more universal among uncivilized people than painting the body, either for the purpose of ornament, or that of inspiring terror.

[241] Inhabitants of what is now Further Pomerania, the New Marche and the Western part of Poland, between the Oder and Vistula. They were a different people from the Goths, though, perhaps, in alliance with them.

[242] These people were settled on the shore of the Baltic, where now are Colburg, Cassubia, and Further Pomerania. Their name is still preserved in the town of Rugenwald and Isle of Rugen.

[243] These were also settlers on the Baltic, about the modern Stolpe, Dantzig, and Lauenburg. The Heruli appear afterwards to have occupied the settlements of the Lemovii. Of these last no further mention occurs; but the Heruli made themselves famous throughout Europe and Asia, and were the first of the Germans who founded a kingdom in Italy under Odoacer.

[244] The Suiones inhabited Sweden, and the Danish isles of Funen, Langlaud, Zeeland, Laland, &c. From them and the Cimbri were derived the Normans, who, after spreading terror through various parts of the empire, at last seized upon the fertile province of Normandy in France. The names of Goths, Visigoths, and Ostrogoths, became still more famous, they being the nations who accomplished the ruin of the Roman empire. The laws of the Visigoths are still extant; but they depart much from the usual simplicity of the German laws.

[245] The Romans, who had but an imperfect knowledge of this part of the world, imagined here those "vast insular tracts" mentioned in the beginning of this treatise. Hence Pliny, also, says of the Baltic sea (Codanus sinus), that "it is filled with islands, the most famous of which, Scandinavia (now Sweden and Norway), is of an undiscovered magnitude; that part of it only being known which is occupied by the Hilleviones, a nation inhabiting five hundred cantons; who call this country another globe." (Lib. iv. 13.) The memory of the Hilleviones is still preserved in the part of Sweden named Halland.

[246] Their naval power continued so great, that they had the glory of framing the nautical code, the laws of which were first written at Wisby, the capital of the isle of Gothland, in the eleventh century.

[247] This is exactly the form of the Indian canoes, which, however, are generally worked with sails as well as oars.

[248] The great opulence of a temple of the Suiones, as described by Adam of Bremen (Eccl. Hist. ch. 233), is a proof of the wealth that at all times has attended naval dominion. "This nation," says he, "possesses a temple of great renown, called Ubsola (now Upsal), not far from the cities Sictona and Birca (now Sigtuna and Bioerkoe). In this temple, which is entirely ornamented with gold, the people worship the statues of three gods; the most powerful of whom, Thor, is seated on a couch in the middle; with Woden on one side, and Fricca on the other." From the ruins of the towns Sictona and Birca arose the present capital of Sweden, Stockholm.

[249] Hence Spener (Notit. German. Antiq.) rightly concludes that the crown was hereditary, and not elective, among the Suiones.

[250] It is uncertain whether what is now called the Frozen Ocean is here meant, or the northern extremities of the Baltic Sea, the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, which are so frozen every winter as to be unnavigable.

[251] The true principles of astronomy have now taught us the reason why, at a certain latitude, the sun, at the summer solstice, appears never to set: and at a lower latitude, the evening twilight continues till morning.

[252] The true reading here is, probably, "immerging;" since it was a common notion at that period, that the descent of the sun into the ocean was attended with a kind of hissing noise, like red hot iron dipped into water. Thus Juvenal, Sat. xiv, 280: --

Audiet Herculeo stridentem gurgite solem. "Hear the sun hiss in the Herculean gulf."

[253] Instead of formas deorum, "forms of deities," some, with more probability, read equorum, "of the horses," which are feigned to draw the chariot of the sun.

[254] Thus Quintus Curtius, speaking of the Indian Ocean, says, "Nature itself can proceed no further."

[255] The Baltic Sea.

[256] Now, the kingdom of Prussia, the duchies of Samogitia and Courland, the palatinates of Livonia and Esthonia, in the name of which last the ancient appellation of these people is preserved.

[257] Because the inhabitants of this extreme part of Germany retained the Scythico-Celtic language, which long prevailed in Britain.

[258] A deity of Scythian origin, called Frea or Fricca. See Mallet's Introduct. to Hist. of Denmark.

[259] Many vestiges of this superstition remain to this day in Sweden. The peasants, in the month of February, the season formerly sacred to Frea, make little images of boars in paste, which they apply to various superstitious uses. (See Eccard.) A figure of a Mater Deum, with the boar, is given by Mr. Pennant, in his Tour in Scotland, 1769, p. 268, engraven from a stone found at the great station at Netherby in Cumberland.

[260] The cause of this was, probably, their confined situation, which did not permit them to wander in hunting and plundering parties, like the rest of the Germans.

[261] This name was transferred to glass when it came into use. Pliny speaks of the production of amber in this country as follows: -- "It is certain that amber is produced in the islands of the Northern Ocean, and is called by the Germans gless. One of these islands, by the natives named Austravia, was on this account called Glessaria by our sailors in the fleet of Germanicus." -- Lib. xxxvii. 3.

[262] Much of the Prussian amber is even at present collected on the shores of the Baltic. Much also is found washed out of the clayey cliffs of Holderness. See Tour in Scotland, 1769, p. 16.

[263] Insomuch that the Guttones, who formerly inhabited this coast, made use of amber as fuel, and sold it for that purpose to the neighboring Teutones. (Plin. xxxvii. 2.)

[264] Various toys and utensils of amber, such as bracelets, necklaces, rings, cups, and even pillars, were to be met with among the luxurious Romans.

[265] In a work by Goeppert and Berendt, on "Amber and the Fossil Remains of Plants contained in it," published at Berlin, 1845, a passage is found (of which a translation is here given) which quite harmonizes with the account of Tacitus: -- "About the parts which are known by the name of Samland an island emerged, or rather a group of islands, ... which gradually increased in circumference, and, favored by a mild sea climate, was overspread with vegetation and forest. This forest was the means of amber being produced. Certain trees in it exuded gums in such quantities that the sunken forest soil now appears to be filled with it to such a degree, as if it had only been deprived of a very trifling part of its contents by the later eruptions of the sea, and the countless storms which have lashed the ocean for centuries." Hence, though found underground, it appears to have been originally the production of some resinous tree. Hence, too, the reason of the appearance of insects, &c. in it, as mentioned by Tacitus.

[266] Norwegians.

[267] All beyond the Vistula was reckoned Sarmatia. These people, therefore, were properly inhabitants of Sarmatia, though from their manners they appeared of German origin.

[268] Pliny also reckons the Peucini among the German nations: -- "The fifth part of Germany is possessed by the Peucini and Bastarnae, who border on the Dacians." (iv. 14.) From Strabo it appears that the Peucini, part of the Bastarnae, inhabited the country about the mouths of the Danube, and particularly the island Peuce, now Piczina, formed by the river.

[269] The habitations of the Peucini were fixed; whereas the Sarmatians wandered about in their wagons.

[270] "Sordes omnium ac torpor; procerum connubiis mixtis nonnihil in Sarmatarum habitum foedantur." In many editions the semicolon is placed not after torpor, but after procerum. The sense of the passage so read is: "The chief men are lazy and stupid, besides being filthy, like all the rest. Intermarriage with the Sarmatians have debased." &c.

[271] The Venedi extended beyond the Peucini and Bastarnae as far as the Baltic Sea; where is the Sinus Venedicus, now the Gulf of Dantzig. Their name is also preserved in Wenden, a part of Livonia. When the German nations made their irruption into Italy, France and Spain, the Venedi, also called Winedi, occupied their vacant settlements between the Vistula and Elbe. Afterwards they crossed the Danube, and seized Dalmatia, Illyricum, Istria, Carniola, and the Noric Alps. A part of Carniola still retains the name of Windismarck, derived from them. This people were also called Slavi; and their language, the Sclavonian, still prevails through a vast tract of country.

[272] This is still the manner of living of the successors of the Sarmatians, the Nogai Tartars.

[273] Their country is called by Pliny, Eningia, now Finland. Warnefrid (De Gest. Langobard. i. 5) thus describes their savage and wretched state: -- "The Scritobini, or Scritofinni, are not without snow in the midst of summer; and, being little superior in sagacity to the brutes, live upon no other food than the raw flesh of wild animals, the hairy skins of which they use for clothing. They derive their name, according to the barbarian tongue, from leaping, because they hunt wild beasts by a certain method of leaping or springing with pieces of wood bent in the shape of a bow." Here is an evident description of the snow-shoes or raquets in common use among the North American savages, as well as the inhabitants of the most northern parts of Europe.

[274] As it is just after mentioned that their chief dependence is on the game procured in hunting, this can only mean that the vegetable food they use consists of wild herbs, in opposition to the cultivated products of the earth.

[275] The Esquimaux and the South Sea islanders do the same thing to this day.

[276] People of Lapland. The origin of this fable was probably the manner of clothing in these cold regions, where the inhabitants bury themselves in the thickest furs, scarcely leaving anything of the form of a human creature.

[277] It is with true judgment that this excellent historian forbears to intermix fabulous narrations with the very interesting and instructive matter of this treatise. Such a mixture might have brought an impeachment on the fidelity of the account in general; which, notwithstanding the suspicions professed by some critics, contains nothing but what is entirely consonant to truth and nature. Had Tacitus indulged his invention in the description of German manners, is it probable that he could have given so just a picture of the state of a people under similar circumstances, the savage tribes of North America, as we have seen them within the present century? Is it likely that his relations would have been so admirably confirmed by the codes of law still extant of the several German nations; such as the Salic, Ripuary, Burgundian, English and Lombard? or that after the course of so many centuries, and the numerous changes of empire, the customs, laws and manners he describes should still be traced in all the various people of German derivation? As long as the original constitution and jurisprudence of our own and other European countries are studied, this treatise will be regarded as one of the most precious and authentic monuments of historical antiquity.



Adnan Oktar and Rabbi Yehuda Glick on live TV show (December 3, 2009)

Adnan Oktar and Rabbi Yehuda Glick on live TV show (December 3, 2009)

PRESENTER: Good evening. Welcome to our program named Together With Mr. Adnan Oktar. Tonight we have a special guest again. Before I introduce him to you, if you please, I would like to announce from which channels our program is being broadcasted tonight. Tonight we are live on Cay Tv and Kahraman Maras Aksu Tv. Apart from these, you can also follow this program alive through some radio stations, these are: Ilgın FM Konya broadcasting from 97.4 FM frequency. Yıldız FM Tekirdag 87.7, Genc FM Karaman 93.3, Adıyaman ASR FM 96.0, Mavi Karadeniz Radio 106.4, Radio 37 Kastamonu 95.2, Radio Star Aksaray 94.0, Emek Radio Mardin 101.0, Radio Enerji Ordu 90.0, Keyif FM Nevsehir 92.7. It is also possible to follow our broadcasting alive from these radio stations. We can now start our live program by introducing our guest if you like.

ADNAN OKTAR: Of course, that would be great insha'Allah.

PRESENTER: Welcome Rabbi Yehudah Glick from Jerusalem. Can we know you a little bit?
RABBI YEHUDAH GLICK: Good evening Mr. Oktar. Good evening Ali. Good evening all the people watching us today all around the world. It is really a very special honour. As I said my name is Rabbi Yehudah Glick. I'm from Jerusalem. I'm the former director of the Temple Institute of Jerusalem. And I'm presently the chairman of the Organisation for Human Rights on the Temple Mount and the chairman of the Foundation, of the Temple Mount Foundation in Jerusalem.


PRESENTER: Yes, please.

RABBI YEHUDAH GLICK: Okay. Basically, as we all know, in the past century, the world has gone through major changes. We see miracles. I can be on a boat in Turkey and pick up a plastic item, and talk to somebody on the other side of the world. And these are miracles. These are miracles that we have seen in the past century. And we refer to them as only natural but these are miracles. And just like these miracles are happening all over, if my great grandmother would come to my kitchen, she wouldn't recognize the dishwasher, the microwave, and the refrigerator. And so to these things that we refer to as natural are showing us that we are in a very special unique era.

ADNAN OKTAR: Masha'Allah.

RABBI YEHUDAH GLICK: And just as we see this in technology, it is ten times more true in human history. We see in the past century how words of many prophecies have come out of the book and have been materialized and have become reality. The Jewish people have come back to their homeland, to Israel. And Jerusalem is becoming a city which will be the capital of God in the world. I want to say that I have come to Turkey for a few days by the invitation of Mr. Oktar and I really see how he and his foundation are very very great lovers of Israel and lovers of the Jewish people. The more they studied Torah, the more they recognized the Jewish people and the more they honor the Jewish people. And for this I really want to express my great thanks.

I want the people, the Jewish community of Turkey to recognize the fact that Mr. Oktar is a very close friend and a true spiritual lover of God. In Israel in Jerusalem, the city chosen by God Himself, we have the Temple Mount. Now the Temple Mount is recognized as the place chosen by God to build the Holy Temple. Solomon built the Holy Temple there and then the Second Temple stands there. Other religions refer to the Temple Mount as holy to them. Christians and the Muslims and some people think that if a place is holy to all religions, it is a dangerous place and we are coming to say that the truth is the opposite. A place, the Temple Mount which is the holiest place in the world, where God began the creation of the world should be a center of religious tolerance and as Mr. Oktar said and I agree with him, it should be a place of freedom of prayer and freedom of worship for all religions and our goal should be to study the heritage of the Temple Mount and to understand the concept of building God's House and as God said in the book of Isaac; "My House will be a house of prayer for all nations."

ADNAN OKTAR: Masha'Allah.

RABBI YEHUDAH GLICK: And as I said I am the chairman of the Organisation for Human Rights in the Temple Mount. Unfortunately people have been using the Temple Mount to bring a bad name for Islam. From the Temple Mount there are some people who are promoting violence instead of promoting love in the name of God. And I was very happy to hear that Mr. Oktar condemned those who are using the Mosque, Al-Aqsa Mosque for violence. Because this Temple Mount should be a place for all those who is faithful in God, should pray to God and worship God on the Temple Mount. And this is what our organization is trying to do; to promote freedom of spiritual religious prayer and religious practice on the Temple Mount

Chief Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau thanks Mr. Adnan Oktar for the kind hospitality of him

Adnan Oktar: Muslims and Jews should pray to Allah to send the Mahdi; King Messiah

Mr. Adnan Oktar' s live conversation with the leading Rabbis from Israel

Mr. Adnan Oktar : Ms. Kim Kardashian is a very good natured and kind person

Adnan Oktar on Snoop Dogg converting to Islam, Britney Spears, and Michael Jackson -- "a pure Muslim", so The Christians, "who could not bear it", murdered him):

Adnan Oktar and Rabbi Menachem Froman

  • Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUYv6Fcs3jo
  • Part 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FmL1oR82fVY


Antisemitism is a fanatical hatred felt for the Jewish people. This racist ideology has caused millions of innocent Jews to be killed, persecuted, exiled and threatened over the centuries.

Islam aims to bring justice to the world. Just as it denounces all kinds of racism, so it denounces antisemitism. Muslims criticize Atheist and radical Zionism, but defend the right of Jews to live in peace and security.

Live Interview with Adnan Oktar by Hesham Tillawi on Rebulic Network (Texas, USA) (December 19, 2009) >>>

Pictures from the meeting of Mr. Adnan Oktar and the Chief Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau, Istanbul (October 18, 2011) >>>

Mr. Adnan Oktar's live conversation with the Chief Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau (A9 TV, October 18, 2011) >>>

Mr. Adnan Oktar' s live conversation with the leading Rabbis from Israel (October 10, 2011) >>>

Joint press conference of Mr. Adnan Oktar with Israeli Delegation (May 12, 2011) >>>

Photos from Adnan Oktar's Press Conference together with the delegation from Israel on May 12, 2011 >>>

Watch Press Conference held by Adnan Oktar & Israeli Delegation (January 20, 2010) >>>

Transcript of the Press Conference held by Adnan Oktar and the Israeli Delegation (January 20, 2010) >>>

Watch Interview with Adnan Oktar and Religious Leaders from Israel (January 19, 2010) >>>

Photos of Adnan Oktar & Israeli Delegation after live TV show >>>

Interview with Mr. Adnan Oktar by American Public TV (December 24, 2009) >>>

Sanhedrin Rabbis and Adnan Oktar on live TV program
(December 1, 2009) >>>

Rabbi Menachem Froman and Adnan Oktar on live TV program (November 10, 2009) >>>

Adnan Oktar's interview by Tamar Yonah, Israel National Radio (August 13, 2009) >>>

Adnan Oktar's meeting with Israeli students

  • 1990: The Science Research Foundation (BAV in Turkish) was formed in Istanbul, headed by Adnan Oktar.
  • 1995: BAV published its first book, entitled Soykırım Yalanı (The Holocaust Lie)" -- "What is presented as Holocaust is the death of some Jews due to the typhus plague during the war and the famine towards the end of the war caused by the defeat of the Germans."
  • 1996: A Turkish painter and intellectual, Bedri Baykam, published a critique of the book in the Ankara daily newspaper Siyah-Beyaz ("Black and White"). A legal suit for slander was brought against him. During the trial, Adnan Oktar was revealed as the author of The Holocaust Lie. The suit was withdrawn in March 1997.
  • 2001: The Stephen Roth Institute of Tel-Aviv University listed Oktar as a Holocaust denier.
  • 2004: The Stephen Roth Institute expressed the opinion that Adnan Oktar had increased his tolerance toward others, asserting that "he now works towards promoting inter-religious dialogue", calling upon all Muslims to have "a tolerant and friendly attitude toward other religions".
  • 2006: BAV published a book affirming "The Holocaust", called The Holocaust Violence -- "The Nazis subjected European Jews to indisputable and unforgivable cruelty during World War II. They humiliated, insulted and degraded millions of Jewish civilians, forcing them from their homes and enslaving them in concentration camps under inhuman conditions... Certainly the Jewish people, of whom 5.5 million died in concentration camps, were the worst victims of the Nazi barbarity.
  • 2007: In an interview with The Guardian, Oktar denied writing The Holocaust Lie, a claim that The Guardian stated was "hard to believe."
  • 2008: In an interview with Der Spiegel, Adnan Oktar stated that The Holocaust Lie had been written by a member of his organization, who had published his own essays using Oktar's pen-name "Harun Yahya". Oktar disclaimed the first book, and said the second book reflected his own opinions.
  • 2009, Oktar said: "Hatred or anger toward the line of the Prophet Abraham is completely unacceptable. The Prophet Abraham is our ancestor, and the Jews are our brothers. We want the descendants of the Prophet Abraham to live in the easiest, pleasantest and most peaceful manner. We want them to be free to perform their religious obligations, to live as they wish in the lands of their forebears and to frequently remember Allah in comfort and security."
  • 2009 & 2010: Oktar published several websites of Jewish interest, including "Islam Denounces Antisemitism"

  • A Weapon of Satan: Romanticism
  • A National Strategy for Turkey
  • A String of Miracles
  • Allah's Artistry in Colour
  • Articles 1-2-3
  • Behind the Scenes of Terrorism
  • Communism in Ambush
  • Consciousness in the Cell
  • Confessions of Evolutionists
  • Darwin's Antagonism Against the Turks
  • Deep Thinking
  • Eternity Has Already Begun
  • Evolutionary Falsehoods
  • Knowing the Truth
  • Glory is Everywhere
  • Israel's Kurdish Card
  • Judaism and Freemasonry
  • Miracles of the Qur'an
  • Never Plead Ignorance
  • Perished Nations
  • Precise Answers to Evolutionists
  • Truths 1-2
  • The Atlas of Creation
  • The Disasters Darwinism Brought to Humanity
  • The Evolution Deceit
  • The Western World Turns to God
  • The New Masonic Order
  • The Prophet Moses
  • The Prophet Joseph
  • The Golden Age
  • The 'Secret Hand' in Bosnia
  • The Truth of the Life of This World
  • The Religion of Darwinism
  • The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism: Fascism
  • The Dark Magic of Darwinism
  • The Qur'an Leads the Way to Science
  • The Real Origin of Life
  • The Creation of the Universe
  • The Design in Nature
  • The End of Darwinism
  • The Green Miracle: Photosynthesis
  • The Holocaust Lie (Soykırım Yalanı)
  • The Secrets of DNA
  • The Miracle in the Atom
  • The Miracle in the Cell
  • The Miracle of the Immune System
  • The Miracle in the Eye
  • The Miracle of Creation in Plants
  • The Miracle in the Spider
  • The Miracle in the Ant
  • The Miracle in the Gnat
  • The Miracle in the Honeybee
  • The Miracle of the Seed
  • The Miracle of the Termite
  • The Miracle of Hormone
  • The Miracle of the Human Being
  • The Miracle of Man's Creation
  • The Miracle of Protein
  • The Winter of Islam and Its Expected Spring
  • Timelessness and the Reality of Fate
  • Self-Sacrifice and Intelligent Behaviour Models in Animals
  • Solution: The Morals of the Qur'an
  • Freemasonry and Capitalism
  • Satan’s Religion: Freemasonry
  • Jehovah’s Sons and the Freemasons
  • Children Darwin Was Lying!
  • The World of Animals
  • The Splendour in the Skies
  • The World of Our Little Friends: The Ants
  • Honeybees That Build Perfect Combs
  • Skillful Dam Builders: Beavers
  • The Mystery of the Atom
  • The Collapse of the Theory of Evolution: The Fact of Creation
  • The Collapse of Materialism
  • The End of Materialism
  • The Blunders of Evolutionists 1
  • The Blunders of Evolutionists 2
  • The Microbiological Collapse of Evolution
  • The Fact of Creation
  • The Collapse of the Theory of Evolution in 20 Questions
  • The Biggest Deception in the History of Biology: Darwinism
  • The Basic Concepts in the Qur'an
  • The Moral Values of the Qur'an
  • Quick Grasp of Faith 1-2-3
  • Ever Thought About the Truth?
  • Crude Understanding of Disbelief
  • Devoted to Allah
  • Abandoning the Society of Ignorance
  • The Real Home of Believers: Paradise
  • Knowledge of the Qur'an
  • Qur'an Index
  • Emigrating for the Cause of Allah
  • The Character of the Hypocrite in the Qur'an
  • The Secrets of the Hypocrite
  • The Names of Allah
  • Communicating the Message and Disputing in the Qur'an
  • Answers from the Qur'an
  • Death Resurrection Hell
  • The Struggle of the Messengers
  • The Avowed Enemy of Man: Satan
  • The Greatest Slander: Idolatry
  • The Religion of the Ignorant
  • The Arrogance of Satan
  • Prayer in the Qur'an
  • The Importance of Conscience in the Qur'an
  • The Day of Resurrection
  • Never Forget
  • Disregarded Judgements of the Qur'an
  • Human Characters in the Society of Ignorance
  • The Importance of Patience in the Qur'an
  • General Information from the Qur'an
  • The Mature Faith
  • Before You Regret
  • Our Messengers Say
  • The Mercy of Believers
  • The Fear of Allah
  • The Nightmare of Disbelief
  • Jesus Will Return
  • Beauties Presented by the Qur'an for Life
  • A Bouquet of the Beauties of Allah 1-2-3-4
  • The Iniquity Called "Mockery"
  • The Mystery of the Test
  • The True Wisdom According to the Qur'an
  • The Struggle with the Religion of Irreligion
  • The School of Yusuf
  • The Alliance of the Good
  • Slanders Spread Against Muslims Throughout History
  • The Importance of Following the Good Word
  • Why Do You Deceive Yourself?
  • Islam: The Religion of Ease
  • Enthusiasm and Excitement in the Qur'an
  • Seeing Good in Everything
  • How does the Unwise Interpret the Qur'an?
  • Some Secrets of the Qur'an
  • The Courage of Believers
  • Being Hopeful in the Qur'an
  • Justice and Tolerance in the Qur'an
  • Basic Tenets of Islam
  • Those Who do not Listen to the Qur'an

Hesham Tillawi & Mark Glenn interview Adnan Oktar [MP3]

"Current Issues", Republic Broadcasting Network, 2009.12.19

Hashim Tallawi has said that it is a sin to be opposed to Jews, because they are "People of The Book".
  • The Turkish Islamic Union will guarantee the security of Israel, Armenia, Xinjiang, etc.
  • Mahdi/Messiah/Christ will return in ten years and resolve all of the disputes within Islam.
  • The Mahdi of Islam is the Messiah of The Jews.
  • "Muslims, Christians and Jews will together live in happiness, live together in brotherhood."
  • Osama bin Laden is a fictitious character, generated by foreign intelligence agencies to make Muslims look back.
  • The 9/11 terror attacks were carried out by Darwinist, atheist, materialist, Leninist and Stalinist Muslims, using Ho Chi Minh tactics, under the direction and control of Freemasons.
  • The Darwinist-Materialist Freemasons have tricked Evangelists into believing that Islam is anti-Christian; but the Jews, Muslims and Christians will defeat the Darwinist-Materialist Freemasons and their Evangelical pawns.
  • Jews do not control Freemasonry. Freemasons are Atheists, so Jews cannot be Freemasons.
  • Jews respect Muslims as True Noahites.
  • Darwinists created Marxism and Communism.
  • The Holocaust was done by Hitler because he was in communion with Satan. The Jews were innocent.
  • Another Holocaust cannot happen because we are now in the End Times. Fighting will only stop in Palestine after the Mahdi returns.
  • Hitler was a Freemason.
  • [In response to Mark Glenn's condemnation of The Old Testament -- which he claims is a "Jewish" book -- and his question, "How can you say that this is a religion of peace?"] That is not the real Jewish religion. The real, pure Jews are in The Sanhedrin.
  • [Special Note: Turkish is an incredibly ugly language.]

Radio Islam on Adnan Oktar

Harun Yahya

Adnan Oktar, under the pen-name Harun Yahya, has released more than 150 books. He originally writes in Turkish, and his studies, his books are translated into English afterwards. His articles are being published in many Turkish magazines/newspapers, and foreign Islamic magazines/papers. He is a respected writer who writes on various different topics: faith topics on the basic issues from the Quran, Quran & Science topics, anti-evolutionist studies, anti-masonic studies, and political issues concerning ummah, iman haqiqats.

One of the greatest publishers of England, Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., has published eight titles by the author so far, which are namely; "Perished Nations", "The Evolution Deceit", "For Men of Understanding", "The Truth of the Life of This World", "Never Plead Ignorance", and "Deep Thinking," "The Miracle in the Ant," "Allah's Artistry in Color".

Sales-Spiels for Adnan Oktar's Books (available at Radio Islam):


The untold story of the "Anti-Islamic International" behind the Serbs

The secret relationship between the Serbs and the West is unraveled in this book for the first time.

You can read the real story of the terror in Bosnia only in this book.

Between 1992 and 1995, the Serbs committed systematic genocide against the Bosnian Muslims. During this savagery, the West did not pursue the benign policy that is commonly attributed to it. A secret hand in the West supported the Serbs and their actions through professional and sophisticated methods.
This book uncovers the details of the secret alliance between Belgrade and the power centers that constitute this secret hand. It further describes how this alliance was born and shaped within the historical development of Serb nationalism and the kinds of methods it employed while directing the Bosnian war from behind the scenes.

The historical development of Serb nationalism and the hatred it bears towards Muslims... The relations established between the Serb nationalists and the Westerners through Freemason lodges... The inside story of the Sarajevo assassination that precipitated World War I... The relations between Westerners and the Chetniks who slaughtered a hundred thousand Bosnian Muslims during World War II... The connections between the Chetniks and the CIA... The role of America in the rise of Slobodan Milosevic... The friendship of Milosevic with Rockefeller and Kissinger... Behind the scenes in the Bosnian war... The diplomatic assistance given to the Serbs... The real mission of the peacemakers... The covert purpose of the Vance-Owen plan: Break up the Muslim-Croatian alliance... The road that leads to Dayton... The guns sent to the Serbs from Israel... The real purpose of the international propaganda concerning Bosnia...

[Correction: The Wars Against The Serbs were engineered by Kike Tom Lantos, Kike William Cohen, Kike John "Kerry", Kike Shmuley "Burglar" Berger, Kike Richard "Holbrooke", Kike Madeleine "Albright", Kike Wesley "Clarke", et kikera.]


The unknown connections among Mossad, CIA, Freemasonry, Gladio, the mafia, and terrorist organizations.

Dark relationships in a dark world: Mafia, Gladio, secret services, terrorist organizations, arms merchants, and terrorists of various ideologies operating jointly...

The world of terrorism is extremely tangled and obscure. The most unexpected relations can be established between the most unlikely groups. The most extraordinary links can be set up between information services and terrorist groups, or between seemingly antagonistic terrorist groups.
This book exposes these murky and surprising ties. It demonstrates how the powers purportedly combating terrorism nourish terror when their own interests are at stake.

If you want to learn the truth about the dark world of terrorism, read this book.

Secret relations of the Israeli and American secret services with terrorist organizations and terrorist regimes... The hidden connections among terrorist organizations, the Mafia, Mason Lodges, and Gladio organizations... The untold story of the P2 scandal in Italy... The Empire of Corruption in the Vatican... The story of Pope John Paul I, who was murdered because of his stand against the Vatican Mafia... The truth behind Pope John Paul II and the Kennedy assassinations... "Islamic terrorist" actions committed by the CIA... Red brigades, ETA, RAF, Black September, and others... Interesting facts about the "anti-Semitic terror" committed against Jewish communities in all corners of the world... The "homosexuality-originated" culture of violence of the Nazi Party... Homosexual Nazi officers and the "pink swastika".. Covert interest relationships between Communist terrorism and Capitalist powers... Media propaganda and false news disseminated at the behest of secret information services.


A classic that uncovers the real truth behind Freemasonry...

Judaism and Freemasonry created a huge stir when it was first published in 1986. Since then, nearly a hundred thousand copies of the book have been printed and sold. Much has been said and written about Freemasonry but little of the truth is known. This book discloses the real identity of the Freemasonry organization using the sources of Masonry itself. Many people in Turkey's first knowledge of this organization was acquired as a result of this book.

If you still have not read this classic, you are already very late. So, don't lose any more time...

The philosophy and the objectives of the organization from the sources of Masonry themselves... The rituals, symbols, and principles of Masonry and Masonic ideas... Evidence of the relationship between Judaism and Freemasonry... How Freemasons regard religion... The sub-organizations of Freemasonry: Lions, Rotary, and others... Freemasonry and ideologies... Freemasons and the media... Freemasons in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey...



Carlos Cortiglia is the British Nationalist Party's Uruguayan candidate for Mayor of London

Don Carlos is opposed to "ethno nationalsim", speaks Joke-English, opposes "anti-Semitism". supports Kikestan-in-Palestine, and wrote a (now erased) blog for The Jewish Chronicle.

Ethno Nationalism and Political Irrelevance

By Carlos Cortiglia, 7 November 2011

If you get caught up in the whirlwinds of the past, you might end up fighting the Battle of Trafalgar all over again and this is a lesson that many in the Nationalist Movement would be well advised to learn as soon as possible.

In the 1940s, Britain defeated an Ethno-Nationalist regime that had occupied much of continental Europe but was pretty close to becoming an occupied country.

[? Don Carlos means the UK was almost occupied? He needs a comma before "but", and should have ended the sentence with "...itself"]

In the end, victory against an Ethno-Nationalist came at a price and as a direct consequence of World War Two the British Empire collapsed and the colonisation of Europe by its former colonies begun.

Before World War Two, and despite the losses of World War One, Western Europe was still the World’s powerhouse. Thanks to Adolf Hitler, European power was destroyed and the destruction of Europe gave birth to bi-polarity with centres of power based outside Western Europe.

For each of the former Powers, there were similar realities. Germany imported massive numbers of Turks, France received a huge influx from Africa and the Middle East and Britain received vast numbers of immigrants from the Caribbean, Africa and the Indian Subcontinent.

So we can fairly say that today’s demographic crisis in Europe was created by Adolf Hitler and his regime. Paradoxically, decades later, many in the Nationalist movement ended up idolizing the one regime that destroyed Europe.

For centuries, Europe had been kept ‘in control’ thanks to what we could call ‘Balance of Power’, an equilibrium that England managed to secure with diplomacy supported by military power. World War Two was the nail in the coffin of ‘Balance of Power’ and when ‘Balance of Power’ disappeared relative peace could only be secured by external Powers over which European countries had no control and European countries became colonies either of the United States of America or of the Soviet Union.

NATO and later on the European Union were not so much defensive elements against external aggression but elements used to try and restore ‘Balance of Power’ in Europe. This became very much an integral part of European psychology. Chancellor Angela Merkel said at a recent meeting of the Bundestag that the choice was between the Euro and War in Europe.

No wonder then that many in today’s Britain, the vast majority of the population of European stock, see Ethno-Nationalism with suspicion and in many cases with outright hostility. The Days of Empire that many cherish were not about Ethno-Nationalism. The Sirs and Dames, the OBEs and the CBEs are remnants of a non-ethno-nationalist Imperial Britain that coincided with British economic, cultural and social prosperity.

Present financial difficulties in Europe have created enormous uncertainties, many across Europe consider that their national identity is under threat and this is reinforced by demographics and by political correctness.

By refusing to take stock of the concerns of local populations and by implementing the wrong kind of policies that tend to discriminate against local populations, the ruling elites are exacerbating the problem and fuelling rising tensions.

The vast majority of the population in Britain is not driven by Ethno-Nationalism and, as I expressed it at a local British National Party meeting in Southeast London, ‘they don’t want to be saved’. Most people care about economics, employment, housing, health, education, transport, safety in the streets and this is something shared across racial, cultural, religious, political and financial boundaries.

You don’t win elections and you don’t represent the Electorate by promoting a product that few people want. Thanks to Ethno-Nationalism, the so called mainstream political parties and their acolytes get away with murder by making promises that they don’t want or they cannot deliver. Britain needs a political party that is able and willing to deliver at a time when faith in the political system is at an all-time low-ebb.

The choices are very clear: we can continue living in the fringes of British politics and remain an irrelevant political oddity or we can adopt the kind of political pragmatism that can offer real solutions. If we are unable or unwilling to face the challenges of the real world, we don’t deserve to be called a political party.

The British National Party was very much instrumental in the investigations carried out during the so called Parliamentary Expenses Scandal. We dealt with facts and evidence, we performed a public service and we felt good about ourselves because we behaved like a true political party.

When we don’t busy ourselves with ideological irrelevance, when we commit ourselves to real politics, we can be extremely effective. This is the challenge for 2011, for 2012 and for many years to come.

If we offer solutions that most people in Britain can welcome as rational and desirable, we will be a truly British National Party.

Don Carlos had that opinion piece posted here, but it has since been deleted:
  • http://londonregionalpressoffice.blogspot.com/2011/11/ethno-nationalism-and-political.html

Don Carlos' Zionist columns for The Jewish Chronicle have also been deleted:
  • http://www.thejc.com/users/carlos-cortiglia
  • http://www.thejc.com/blogs/carlos-cortiglia/anti-semite-rage

Perhaps others can see those Jew Chronicle pages. I'm most likely blocked from there. All I can see is this message: "Access denied. You are not authorized to access this page."

Don Carlos, when asked if he's a Kike, has always just ignored the question and changed the subject.

BNP 'not opposed to legal immigration', mayoral candidate says

Mayoral candidate Carlos Cortiglia said the BNP "has to change"

BBC, 26 April 2012

Immigrants "who are legally entitled to be in this country" are "not the issue" for the British National Party, its candidate for London mayor has said.

Carlos Cortiglia, who is originally from Uruguay, also told the BBC's Daily Politics the BNP "has to change" and "stop talking about 1930s ideas".

The 2010 BNP general election manifesto said it was campaigning against "the immigration invasion of our country".

But Mr Cortiglia said its concern was only with illegal immigration.

He moved to the UK from Uruguay in 1989 and has lived and worked in London ever since - most recently as the BNP's press officer.

'Bone of contention'

According to the BNP website, its immigration policies include a plan to "stop all new immigration except for exceptional cases".

But when asked on the Daily Politics whether the BNP did indeed want to stop all new immigration, Mr Cortiglia replied: "That is not true at all."

The BNP website also states that it wants to "reject all asylum seekers who passed safe countries on their way to Britain", but Mr Cortiglia said the party's complaint was with "bogus asylum seekers".

He went on: "We talk about illegal immigration, that is the one bone of contention, illegal immigration is the issue.

"People who are legally entitled to be in this country, like me, are not the issue.

"There's no argument that people who are legally entitled to be here have the right to be represented, have the right to participate."

He added: "It's not the issue of stopping people coming here because that will never happen - because it's not part of any modern country."

Mr Cortiglia said: "The BNP has to change. If the BNP wants to be a British national party it has to stop talking about 1930s ideas.

"I love this country, I want to represent it and I want to put an end to this sort of 1930s chauvinism that is not the solution for Britain's problems."

'Supported Britain'

During the electoral campaign, Mr Cortiglia has been forced to deny fighting for Argentina in the 1982 Falklands War.

The allegation stems from an interview he apparently gave to La Nacion newspaper in 2003, in which he was quoted as saying he had "volunteered to go to the Malvinas Islands".

But he told the BBC: "I supported Britain... I was a teacher of mathematics throughout the whole year... and I had absolutely nothing to do with it."

Mr Cortiglia has pledged to introduce free weekend travel on the Underground and a minimum five-year prison sentence for knife crime if elected mayor on 3 May.

And he said: "One of our policies is to stop automation of the Underground and to maintain the principle that we need to protect public services. That is not a far right cry, that is a socialist principle."

Complaining that the BNP had not been able to take part in mayoral debates and hustings, he added: "The issue of percentages is not an issue. The issue in British politics is participation."


Profile: London mayoral candidate Carlos Cortiglia

Mr Cortiglia says he will work to preserve the UK's "freedoms, values and traditions"

The British National Party confounded expectations by fielding a Uruguayan national, Carlos Cortiglia, as its candidate for London mayor.

Mr Cortiglia moved to the UK in 1989 and has lived and worked in London ever since.

He says he is "astonished" by the "hostility shown by many of the migrants towards the British and their way of life".

Mr Cortiglia says he wants "a British Britain" - and a requirement for anyone coming to live in this country to speak English.

The former BNP press officer has also mooted the abolition of the London congestion charge, the promotion of renewable energy sources like solar power, and made plain his opposition to the use of water cannon on the capital's streets.

But he has been forced to answer questions about his own background and to deny fighting for Argentina in the 1982 Falklands War.

Official Secrets

Married with three children - all of whom were born in the UK - Mr Cortiglia came to London to work for the BBC World Service.

There he was a presenter, producer and studio manager on news and features programmes for Spanish-speaking countries.

He has also worked for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office on its radio and TV services, as well as, he adds somewhat cryptically, carrying out "much work under the Official Secrets Act".

Before coming to the UK, Mr Cortiglia was co-ordinator of Uruguay's parliamentary state broadcasting, managing coverage of the general assembly, senate, house of representatives and parliamentary committees.

The Uruguayan half of his CV also includes time as a state secondary school teacher in maths and modern languages.


Mr Cortiglia became a British Citizen in 2001 and joined the British National Party in the same year.

He stood unsuccessfully for the party in elections for the London Assembly in 2004.

Claims about his involvement in the Falklands War come in part from an interview Mr Cortiglia apparently gave to La Nacion newspaper in 2003, in which he is quoted as saying: "En 1982 me ofrecí como voluntario para ir a las Islas Malvinas."

In English: "In 1982 I volunteered to go to the Malvinas Islands [the Falklands]".

Mr Cortiglia says this interview never took place, and explains on the BNP's website that it was a smear and that he had no involvement - formal or voluntary - with Argentine forces during the conflict.

Any suggestion otherwise was "an amazing fabrication", he insists, given that he was, in fact, based in the Uruguayan capital Montevideo for the entire duration of the war, studying and working as a teacher.

Sharia law

Mr Cortiglia may be an unconventional candidate for a party which has campaigned against "the immigrant invasion of our country".

But he sees no such contradiction, arguing that Uruguay is a country built on British ideals and that since coming here, he has adopted everything about his new nation.

Asked why he joined the BNP, Mr Cortiglia says he wanted "to pay back the country that has been so kind to me and my family".

"I want to help preserve the freedoms, values and traditions that help make this a great country to live in."

A regular contributor to the website London Patriot, Mr Cortiglia has written on a range of topics, including introducing the death penalty for drug dealers, and the need to halt the spread of sharia law in the UK.

He believes the mainstream political parties are afraid to debate the dangers of immigration, arguing that Britain was built on Christian values and that by allowing those to be "eroded" by the spread of Islam, "we are basically destroying the country".


Don Carlos: "Uruguay is a country built on British ideals."

By "British", Don Carlos means: Masonic.

José Gervasio Artigas (1764-1850) is a national hero of Uruguay -- "The Father of Uruguayan nationhood". He was a Freemason.

"Now, some Lodges, member of the Grand Orient of Paraguay, in Asuncion are: Aurora del Paraguay, Sol Naciente, Federico el Grande, Libertad, Universo, Fraternidad Masónica, Paz y Justicia, Bernardino Caballero, Concordia, Pitágoras, Acacia, Arandú, Giusepe Garibaldi, Lautaro, Millenium 3033, Fénix, José Gervasio Artigas [Freemasons do not name lodges after Non-Masons], Igualdad, Pensamiento Activo, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Piedra Angular."


José Gervasio Artigas was associated with his contemporary Masonic revolutionaries, such as Bernardo O'Higgins, Simon Bolivar and José de San Martin. Their revolutions were coordinated through Spanish lodges based in London. San Martin was initiated into the Logia de los Caballeros Racionales in London in 1811. Logia de los Caballeros Racionales (Lodge of Rational Knights), was a revolutionary secret lodge founded in Cadiz, and later established in South America and London. Its initial goal was to establish a Masonic republic in Spain, but after being driven into exile, its objective was the establishment of Masonic republics in Latin America. It was later renamed, by San Martin, as The Most Worthy Lodge of Rational Knights of Lautaro, or simply Logia Lautaro.

"I have no chance of becoming mayor of London!"

"The BNP is The True Party of Integration!"

"Even losing, you are going to keep fighting!"

Don Carlos defending Kikes & Kikestan-in-Palestine

British Trade Unions in frontal attack against Israel?

Carlos Cortiglia, BNP, London Regional Press Office, 12 September 2011

Practically every time BNP representatives attend a public meeting they are faced with questions about the Holocaust and we are constantly accused by left-wing organizations with labels like Nazi or Anti-Semite, but let’s look at the facts.

A certain Mayoral candidate calls a Jewish journalist 'German Nazi Concentration Camp Guard' and then justifies the actions of the terrorist movement called Hamas in Palestine against the people of Israel. Now, according to the Jewish Chronicle, British Trade Unions are planning to consider 'severing all Israel ties'.

The Jewish Chronicle indicates that on Wednesday (this week) the Trade Unions Congress will debate about withdrawing all cooperation with Israeli organizations, including Histadrut, a major Israeli trade union. Histadrut has a long history that goes back to the foundation of the state of Israel.

This is happening at a time when Jewish organizations are reporting that Jewish citizens are being the target of very hostile attacks and just a few days ago the Royal Albert Hall was invaded by protesters and some of them were rubbing their private parts with Israeli flags.

Israeli sources are reported to have said that this is a backdoor route to a full boycott of Israel itself.

What is the position of Israel? Israel has said again and again that they cannot negotiate with people that refuse to recognize the existence of Israel and whose sole aim is the destruction of the State of Israel. The position of the Israeli government is absolutely justified.

Hamas refuses to recognize Israel and its declared policy is to throw the people of Israel into the sea and they are supported by British Trade Unions that now, once again, have shown their anti-Semite feelings and intentions.

Anti-Semite BBC pays to hide report of Bias against Israel

Carlos Cortiglia, BNP, London Regional Press Office, 9 October 2011

The BBC paid 200,000 pound [sic] to hide the Balent Report that described the extent of biased reporting against the State of Israel. Yes, the [KIKE-RUN] British Broadcasting Corporation that very much allows itself to be used to accuse British National Party activists labelling them Nazis, Fascists and Anti-Semites has an anti-Jewish agenda.

BBC bosses had been accused by those who claimed that its coverage of the conflict involving Islamic terrorists against Israel had been skewed by a pro-Palestinian bias and the Balan Report was blatant evidence that the charges against the BBC were justified.

So what did the BBC bosses do? They spent 200,000 pound [sic] to fight a legal challenge forcing them to reveal the contents of the Balan Report.

Conservative MP David Davies said that an organisation funded by British taxpayers was using money to prevent the publication of a damning report and said that the behaviour of the BBC was absolutely indefensible.

Well, well, well… We have known for quite a long time about the links between the BBC and left-wing organisations – including organizations whose aim is the total destruction of the State of Israel.

A survey carried out by the Jewish Chronicle revealed that not less than 71 per cent of its readers believe that the Labour Party has betrayed Israel. Even high rank officers of the BBC indicated that the BBC was very much attached to the Labour Party.

One of the latest scandals has to do with BBC’s decision to delete references to Christianity from its reporting ‘because it might offend non-Christians’. Do you know who is in charge of the BBC department involved in Religious programming?

[KIKES? Like the KIKES who run BBC News and the BBC overall?]

BBC’s agenda is self-evident. Christianity and Judaism are under attack. Ann Widdecombe, the Catholic former Conservative Minister, said that she thinks that what the BBC is doing is offensive to Christians. Even Andrew Marr, known left-wing journalist, criticized the BBC.

The scandal reaches astronomical proportions when Dr. Ghayasuddin Siddiqui, of the Muslim Institute, says that he does not believe that Christian references to AD and BC could possibly be offensive for non-Christians and asks why should the said references be changed. London Mayor Boris Johnson publicly stated that the anti-Christian stance of the BBC is absolute rubbish and high-rank BBC presenters like John Humphrys will continue using Christian references.

For many years the British National Party has been saying that the BBC is biased but recent events show that the BBC has a specific anti-Jewish and anti-Christian agenda.

The Guardian supports the enemies of Israel

Carlos Cortiglia, BNP, London Regional Press Office, 21 April 2011

The Guardian as the official Labour Party newspaper is struggling to defend its record as reputable newspaper by, once again, peddling lies. What the Guardian does not see is that with or without Carlos Cortiglia, the Labour Party is losing big time and that Ken Livingstone is running away from a debate.

Labour lost Tower Hamlets and also lost Bradford and what is more they lost again on April 19th 2012 when the Muslim Community joined forces to get rid of Labour in yet another ward in Tower Hamlets. On the same day, the British National Party got 31% coming second in a by-election in Barking and Dagenham, a local authority where according to The Guardian wishful thinkers “the British National Party had been wiped out”.

To make matters worse, Ken Livingstone is running away from the British National Party and being attacked by members of his own political party with [KIKE] Lord Sugar heading straight against Ken Livingstone telling everybody not to support Ken Livingstone.

The Guardian insists on trying to destroy the reputation of the Mayoral Candidate of the British National Party accusing Carlos Cortiglia of being anti-Semite when Carlos Cortiglia has shown that he fully supports the State of Israel. Well, Ken Livingstone is a declared anti-Semite that has supported Hamas guerrillas, called a Jewish journalist ‘German Nazi Concentration Camp Guard’ and even said that rich Jewish people would not support Labour. I wonder why.

Ken Livingstone has close links with President Chavez of Venezuela and President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad who is a Holocaust denierand has called for the total destruction of the State of Israel. Nice association, especially coming from The Guardian. Talking about the Falkland Islands, people will remember that Ken Livingstone sided with the Military Junta of Argentina by calling for the end of British Imperialism. This is on record. The Guardian got things wrong once again.

"Try to understand, or one of us will die!"






















الزمزمي يوضح فتوى معاشرة الزوج لزوجته بعد وفاتها

Zamzami explains his fatwa regarding a husband having sexual intercourse with a wife after her death

أن الفتوى لا تصنع و لا تخضع للعاطفة و الرأي الشخصي و لكنها تؤخذ من شريعة الله وفق شروطها و قواعدها

Fatwas are not made and are not subject to emotion and personal opinion, but are taken from the law of God according to his terms and rules.

Egypt’s women urge MPs not to pass early marriage, sex-after-death laws

By Abeer Tayel, Al-Arabiya, 25 April 2012

Egypt’s National Council for Women (NCW) has appealed to the Islamist-dominated parliament not to approve two controversial laws on the minimum age of marriage and allowing a husband to have sex with his dead wife within six hours of her death according to a report in an Egyptian newspaper.

The appeal came in a message sent by Dr. Mervat al-Talawi, head of the NCW, to the Egyptian People’s Assembly Speaker, Dr. Saad al-Katatni, addressing the woes of Egyptian women, especially after the popular uprising that toppled president Hosni Mubarak in February 2011.

She was referring to two laws: one that would legalize the marriage of girls starting from the age of 14 [this is halal, since Mohammad engaged in sexual intercourse with a 9-year-old girl] and the other that permits a husband to have sex with his dead wife within the six hours following her death.

According to Egyptian columnist Amro Abdul Samea in al-Ahram, Talawi’s message included an appeal to parliament to avoid the controversial legislations that rid women of their rights of getting education and employment, under alleged religious interpretations.

“Talawi tried to underline in her message that marginalizing and undermining the status of women in future development plans would undoubtedly negatively affect the country’s human development, simply because women represent half the population,” Abdul Samea said in his article.

The controversy about a husband having sex with his dead wife came about after a Moroccan cleric spoke about the issue in May 2011.

Zamzami Abdul Bari said that marriage remains valid even after death adding that a woman also too had the same right to engage in sex with her dead husband.

Two years ago, Zamzami incited further controversy in Morocco when he said it was permissible for pregnant women to drink alcohol.

But it seems his view on partners having sex with their deceased partners has found its way to Egypt one year on.

Egyptian prominent journalist and TV anchor Jaber al-Qarmouty on Tuesday referred to Abdul Samea’s article in his daily show on Egyptian ON TV and criticized the whole notion of “permitting a husband to have sex with his wife after her death under a so-called ‘Farewell Intercourse’ draft law.”

“This is very serious. Could the panel that will draft the Egyptian constitution possibly discuss such issues? Did Abdul Samea see by his own eyes the text of the message sent by Talawi to Katatni? This is unbelievable. It is a catastrophe to give the husband such a right! Has the Islamic trend reached that far? Is there really a draft law in this regard? Are there people thinking in this manner?”

Many members of the newly-elected, and majority Islamist parliament, have been accused of launching attacks against women’s rights in the country.

They wish to cancel many, if not most, of the laws that promote women’s rights, most notably a law that allows a wife to obtain a divorce without obstructions from her partner. The implementation of the Islamic right to divorce law, also known as the Khula, ended years of hardship and legal battles women would have to endure when trying to obtain a divorce.

Egyptian law grants men the right to terminate a marriage, but grants women the opportunity to end an unhappy or abusive marriages without the obstruction of their partner. Prior to the implementation of the Khula over a decade ago, it could take 10 to 15 years for a woman to be granted a divorce by the courts.

Islamist members of Egyptian parliament, however, accuse these laws of “aiming to destroy families” and have said it was passed to please the former first lady of the fallen regime, Suzanne Mubarak, who devoted much of her attention to the issues of granting the women all her rights.

The parliamentary attacks on women’s rights has drawn great criticism from women’s organizations, who dismissed the calls and accused the MPs of wishing to destroy the little gains Egyptian women attained after long years of organized struggle.



Sheikh Abdul-Bari Zamzami (b. 1943 in Tanger, Moroccois) is a member of Moroccan Religious Scholars League. He studied jurisprudence at the hands of his father, the sheikh Muhammad Zamzami. In 1976, he moved to Casablanca where he became the khatib (a person who delivers the sermon (khutba) of the Yusufi Mosque, the Muhammadi Mosque and other mosques. He is one of the founding members of the International Union of Muslim Scholars. As of 2009, he is the khatib of famous Al-Hamra Mosque in the old Casablanca.



'Farewell Intercourse' law allowing sex with dead wives sparks fury in Egypt

RT, 26 April, 2012

Egypt’s Islamist-dominated parliament is set to introduce a law allowing husbands to have sex with their dead wives up to six hours after death. Critics fear it highlights a trend of increasingly anti-female legislation since the Arab Spring.

The “farewell Intercourse” bill was inspired by a Fatwa issued by a Moroccan cleric last year. Zamzami Abdul Bar said that since the two would meet in Heaven again anyway, death shouldn’t get in the way of one last post-mortem marital romp.

Critics have slammed the law as “catastrophic.” Prominent journalist and TV host Jaber al-Qarmouty used his program on Tuesday to lash out at the proposed law.

“This is unbelievable. It is a catastrophe to give the husband such a right! Has the Islamic trend reached that far? Is there really a draft law in this regard? Are there people thinking in this manner,” he lamented on air.

Egypt’s National Council for Women (NCW) also called on Parliament not to adopt this and other measures which they believe increasingly seek to roll back women’s rights.

The NTC further charges that "marginalizing and undermining the status of women would negatively affect the country's human development.”

Along with the rather grim “farewell Intercourse” draft law, parliament is also set to approve legislation that would allow girls as young as 14 to get married.

Lawmakers are also seeking to eliminate a reform implemented over a decade ago that allows women to end unhappy or abusive marriages without interference from their spouses.

NCW head Dr. Mervat al-Talawi sent a message to the People’s Assembly speaker outlining the plight of women in post-revolutionary Egypt.

Apart from the controversial marriage reforms, she also reportedly appealed to parliament not to legislate away a woman’s right to education and employment under the guise of religion, Al Arabiya reports.

But with the Muslim Brotherhood securing the biggest bloc in parliament and posed to take the presidency in next month’s elections, the rights women enjoyed during the Mubarak era may soon be a thing of the past.




George Galloway's conversion to Islam

Jemima Khan, in an interview with the Bradford MP, reveals the background to his Muslim conversion.

By Alice Gribbin @ "The Staggers", The New Statesman’s rolling politics blog, 26 April 2012

Combative, hyperbolic, confident: George Galloway has lunch with Jemima Khan

In a wide-ranging interview in this week's issue of the New Statesman, George Galloway MP talks about his spectacular by-election victory, [KIKE] Ed Miliband's fortunes, Middle East dictators and mass unemployment. Interviewer Jemima Khan also exclusively reveals the background to Galloway’s conversion to Islam:

"George Galloway, MP for Bradford West, is a Muslim. He converted more than ten years ago in a ceremony at a hotel in Kilburn, north-west London, attended by members of the Muslim Association of Great Britain. Those close to him know this. The rest of the world, including his Muslim constituents, does not."

Over a halal, alcohol-free lunch at a cafe on Bradford’s main high street, Khan tells Galloway: “I know someone who attended your shahadah [the Muslim conversion ceremony].”


"He stares at me across the table, penetrating blue eyes squinted, pausing for the first time in an hour. His special adviser, a glossy-haired Asian Pakistani called Ayesha, looks into her daal while his new bride, Gayatri Pertiwi – a Dutch-born Muslim of Indonesian descent 30 years his junior, seated beside him throughout the interview – smiles at me.

"George and Gayatri performed the nikah, the Muslim marriage ceremony, four weeks ago at the Royal Theatre in Amsterdam, the day after his sensational and unexpected victory in Bradford. This means, presumably, that they are unmarried under British law. Galloway has had two previous Muslim marriages (and this marriage to Gayatri is his fourth marriage in total). However, a Muslim woman is not permitted to marry a non-Muslim man under Islamic law – although the other way round is allowed."

Khan and Galloway were scheduled to meet at the local mosque for juma (Friday) prayers, “where Galloway usually meets the community each week, but the plan was cancelled when it transpired that I was coming with a photographer”. Although Galloway denies it was only the Muslim vote that won him the Bradford seat, Khan writes:

"Galloway may have successfully out-Muslimed Labour’s Muslim British-Pakistani candidate, Imran Hussain, during the election campaign, with his speeches full of “inshallahs”, his invocations of the Quran – “the people who invaded and destroyed Iraq . . . will burn in the hell-fires of Hell” – and his smattering of Arabic words: “We stand for justice and haq [truth].” Pamphlets were distributed declaring: “God knows who is a Muslim and he knows who is not. Instinctively, so do you . . . I, George Galloway, do not drink alcohol and never have.” (Galloway has denied he was responsible for these.)"

In the media, Galloway is often referred to as a Catholic. However, as Khan finds, the Muslim constituents of Bradford knew otherwise:

"There must have been some white constituents in Bradford, who, although natural Labour supporters, preferred to vote for the white Catholic candidate rather than the brown Muslim one representing Labour. Meanwhile, his Muslim constituents delighted in the hints – “a Muslim is somebody who is not afraid of earthly power but who fears only the Judgement Day. I’m ready for that, I’m working for that and it’s the only thing I fear.” Many favoured a possible or a potential Muslim over a “lapsed” one, such as Labour’s Hussain, who, Galloway claimed in his campaign, was “never out of the pub”."

Read the full NS Profile in this week's issue of the magazine, out today.

Update, 14.30

George Galloway has released a statement about the interview. The New Statesman responds:

“It is notable that Galloway does not deny being a Muslim convert – and he did not deny it when it was put to him at the time of the interview, which is on tape. Contrary to his press release, nor did he deny that the ceremony took place when it was put to him during the interview. This is also on tape. Furthermore, he failed to clarify how, by his own admission, he had a 'nikah' (a Muslim marriage ceremony), despite the fact that a non-Muslim man cannot marry a Muslim woman under Islamic law. As for calling his 'secretary' his 'special adviser', this is how she asked to be described in an email to Jemima Khan."



Jonathan David Anthony Bowden

1962.04.12 ~ 2012.03.29

Also sprach Bowden:

Might Bowden's Nietzschean ghost haunt me if I say, "Rest In Peace"?


From Sarah, Kikess of Albion's blog:

How Should We View the Jews?

By [Pseudo-Christian] Dr.D


As the Judeo–Christian West, I think that there are several things we can say about how we have to look at the Jews.


We should see the Jews as people we can often deal with productively, unlike the Muzlims.

The “otherness” of the Muzlims shows itself largely in a completely perverse nature making it impossible to have any enduring productive relation with them. This is assured by their own Koran that enjoins them not to form friendships with non-muzlims. With Jews on the other hand, there are no fundamental barriers to good working relations, although sometimes things are strained. In most cases, however, Jews and Gentiles have been able to work together in the world of work without conflict.

We should remember that the Jews do not see the world through Western eyes.

This comment requires some qualification in that, many modern Jews do see the world to some extent through Western eyes. Many of them have been educated in the West, in Europe and the US, so they have Western cultural values to a large extent. On the other hand, many of the Jews in Israel have come from Poland, Ukraine, and Russia and do not have very Western views at all.

We should generally be supportive of the Jews, in an arms–length sort of way, realizing that they are not, and never will be, us.

It is delusional to think that Jews will ever be one with us, so while we should wish to be supportive, we have to realize that their interests are not entirely aligned with our own and they will always act in their own interests, not ours; remember the USS Liberty. It is foolhardy to let Jews into our key leadership positions for this very reason. They will always act as Jews first, and as citizens second.


Our view of the Jews needs to one of cautious, somewhat distant, friendship. It needs to be always conscious of their otherness and their own awareness of that fact. We need to be supportive, but not too trusting. It is very important for the Jews to have a homeland of their own, because truly they do not really belong in ours. By this I do not propose the expulsion of the Jews, but I do mean that they should not be trusted with the essential elements of Western society. They are not us.


[From the Kikish] Comments [which are no longer accepted]:

  • "Christianity is a Jewish cult"
  • "You need to quit picking on the Jews"
  • "The Muslims are the real problem"
  • "Racists are the biggest problem"

Summary of Kike Dr.D's Kikery:
  • "The West" = Kike Pseudo-Christian territory
  • "The West" can ally with Kikes
  • Kikes are not perverse
  • There's nothing wrong with Kikes, they're just different
  • There's nothing preventing "Westerners" allying with Kikes
  • Historically Kikes and "Westerners" have had a fabulous relationship overall
  • The main problem with Kikes in Kikestan-in-Palestine is that they have been corrupted by living amongst Orthodox Christian and Roman Catholic Slavic people
  • "Westerners" should support Kikes
  • "Westerners" need to be friends with Kikes
  • It is "very important" for Kikes to have "a homeland of their own" [even if it is not their "homeland", and even if they can only live their by leeching oof of Non-Kikes, both in their fictitious "homeland" and around the world] 
  • Kikes should not be treated as pariahs

I came across that Kike bilge via "Karl Radl"s blog, Semitic Controversies:

  • Radl is critical of "Dr.D", but is foolish for taking him seriously and at face value, and for constantly repeating the obvious lie that "Dr.D" is a Christian.
  • Radl has a hard time detecting Kike subversion in front of his own eyes, even as he writes about it in historical contexts.
  • Radl spends a lot of time critiquing "Dr.D", when all that is necessary is to trash The Kike as I have just done, and give it at least a metaphorical kick in the teeth. 
  • Radl notes that "Dr.D" uses the strange spelling "Muzlims" to refer to Muslims. I myself refer to either Muz or Muslims, depending on the situation. However, Radl refers to Kikes with the lower-cases "jews".
  • Like the Kikes, Radl constantly refers to Kikestan-in-Palestine as "Israel". Yes, Radl has a hard time detecting Kike subversion in front of his own eyes, even as he writes about it in historical contexts.


U.S. Chief Justice John Roberts, 2012.04.25 :

"It seems to me that the Federal Government just doesn't want to know who is here illegally or not."


DIVERSITY: The time between (a) when the first Black family moves into a neighborhood, and (b) when the last White family moves out, with a Kike yelling "RAYSSISS!" at them.

Peanuts Gang


The KIKE's NYC 22 is a cop-show that premiered on KIKE CBS on 2012.04.15. KIKE NYC 22 took over the timeslot of KIKE CSI: Miami, which had its season shortened slightly to make room for the new drama. The show holds a Metacritic score of 57 out of 100. According to TV By The Numbers, "The series premiere of [KIKE] NYC 22 drew just a 1.5 adults 18-49 rating at 10pm....That compares with a 2.1 rating average for new episodes of [KIKE] CSI: Miami since January, and a 1.7 for the significantly delayed finale last week." The same site categorized the show as "certain to be canceled". The KIKE Boston Herald reviewer, Mark Perigard, said that KIKE NYC 22 "steals every bad part of 1980s cop shows. ... as cutting-edge as dial-up Internet. ... TV this dull should be outlawed."

The series follows a diverse group of rookie New York City Police Department officers as they patrol the streets of Upper Manhattan:
  • KIKE Adam Goldberg: Ray "Lazarus" Harper, a cool-dood street-Yid and ex-reporter
  • KIKE Leelee Sobieski: Jennifer "White House" Perry, a constantly-bemused cop-chick and ex-Marine
  • Texan Stark Bunker Sands: Kenny McLaren, the Token "White-Bread", "Vanilla" White Guy, and the fourth-generation of a cop family
  • Latina Judy Marte: Tonya Sanchez, a Sassy Puerto Rican chica who is the law-abiding black sheep of her family
  • Negro Harold House Moore: Jayson "Jackpot" Toney, an ex-playah and failed bassetballah
  • Londoner Tom Reed: Ahmad Khan, a sensitive Afghan immigrant

Executive Producers:
  • Robert De Niro
  • KIKE Jane Rosenthal

Episode 2: "Firebomb", 2012.04.22
  • Director: Félix Alcalá, ex of Kike CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Kike Dollhouse, Kike House, et kikera
  • Writer: Talicia Raggs

The rookies are given their first midnight shift.

A firebomb erupts in the block that Kike Lazarus and Latina Tonya are watching over, with the crime stemming from a drug war. The Latina wants to arrest the Negro drug dealers, but her Kike partner says that it's better to just let them operate peacefully, and that drugs should be legalized, which would pay off all of the USA's debts. The street characters are all negroes (including a prominent fat queer Negro), except for an angry White yuppie, who is the arsonist. He is caught because he used a $200 bottle of single malt scotch to fashion a molotov cocktail, and when the Latina goes into his house she sees scores of bottles of expensive single malts. He confesses that he bombed his peaceful and decent drug-dealing neighbours because he was jealous of their business success, and because he was angry that people prefer dope to single malt whiskey.

Stereotypical White guy McLaren is partnered with Kike Perry. McLaren catches a Negro thug -- "T-Rex" -- spray-painting on a gravestone, but releases him in an attempt to have sex with T-Rex' older sister. Later Kike Perry and McLaren see T-Rex, and he runs away, so they chase after him and catch him carrying burglary tools. They let him go after T-Rex says he knows the White guy just wants to have sex with his sister. Then they discover that T-Rex's gang are getting ready to burglarize a Paki's drugstore. So McLaren goes and arrest T-Rex for carrying spray-paint, in order that he will be detained while the burglary goes down, which turns out to be a first-degree felony because the Negro youths carry guns during the commission of their offense. T-Rex's older sister does not appreciate McLaren's charity, and makes it clear that he will have no chance of mating with her. His Kike partner looks at the sister's angry Mobama-face and tells him, "Oh, she hates you!"

A rapper-turned-actor (Kirk "Sticky Fingaz" Jones), shadows Negro Jackpot and Arab Ahmad for a movie role. The raper acts up like a dumb, showy, arrogant Nigger throughout their shift. He used to be an associate of the Negro cop, and tells all sorts of stories of what the hilinx they and their fellows used to get up to as carefree youths. His Kike manager comes along, and is robbed and stripped by a pack of Niggers. While patrolling the 'hood, the cops and their rapper side-kick encounter a showy, blonde "shiksah", who is accompanied by a big, dumb, aggressive Negro. The Muz clearly wants to mate with the "shiksah", and, sensing this, her Negro companion puts his arm around her and drags her away. The Negro cop and his raper ex-chum then give the shy and delicate Muz advise on how to get a woman. The Muz is shocked to discover that his Negro partner once mated with four woman at once. The show ends with the "shiksah" joing the four male cops for their breakfast and banter.

Episode 3: "Thugs and Lovers" 2012.04.29
  • Director: Martha Mitchell (of Kike NCIS, Kike House, Kike Numb3rs, Kike Law & Order, et kikera)
  • Writer: KIKE David Rambo, ex of Kike CSI, "married to Theodore Heyck of A Man Is A Man (Gailey Gay)

Episode 4: "Lost and Found" 2012.05.06
  • Director: KIKE David Platt (of Kike House, Kike Law & Order, Kike Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, Kike Law & Order: Trial by Jury, Kike Law & Order: Criminal Intent, et kikera)
  • Writer: Robert Port


Kosher Pig

In the late 19th Century, as the number of Jew invaders in America increased, some Jew intellectuals and Community Organizers proclaimed that recent Jew immigrants ought to become "tillers of the soil", and thereby shake off the widespread perception that they are just parasites living off the toil of Non-Jews.

So Jew peddlers, usurers and "scholars" established agricultural colonies on land bought for them by Alliance Israélite Universelle, the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society, The Baron De Hirsch Fund, and other charities and philanthropists; who also provided them with farming equipment.

The Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society paid workers to clear the land, and Jews got politicians to arrange for the US Army to give the Jew "pioneers" thousands of army tents for shelter until permanent housing could be built for them.

The Jew "pioneers"/beneficiaries started out farming, then operated small factories, and eventually concentrated on textiles and clothing -- both the production and retail industries.

All of the Jewish Agricultural Societies in the USA have faded away, into the mists of time.


Dedicated to all the Queers and Kikes and Neo-Pagan-Pseudo-Indo-Aryans and Masons in the Alt-Right/Alt-Kike movement, and to the memory of Savitri Devi Mukherji.



"Personal Freedom" vs "Gross Rayssizm"

An Indian is disgusted with her "White Privilege".

[The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Ed., 1979: "Privilege: The granting of some concession; a partial exemption from fulfilling established rules or obligations (tax privileges or pension privileges) or the easing of the conditions of their fulfillment.]

A Bombay liberal says that dark-skinned sluts are for bring to a hotel hotel rooms, and light-skinned ladies are for bringing home to mummy.

"Are Indians closet racists?" -- "Closet"? -- BWAAAAAAAAAHAHAHA!


Are Indians "closet" queers as well as "closet" rayssissez?

Indian men FAIL as trannies. The voices especially need a lot of work...


Rayssiss Injin Chattering Heads Condemn "Mischevious" Australians:

"As more Indians are attacked in Australia, Mizoram's Chief Minister kicks up a new storm. Are Indians just as guilty of racism? Mani Shankar Aiyar, Ravi Shankar Prasad, Madhu Kishwar and Malena Amusa discuss the issue in 'Left, Right and Centre'."

[ABC News, 2009.09.16:]

TONY EASTLEY: The issue of violence against Indians in Australia is back on centre stage in India, where media reports say three Indian men were set upon by a 70 strong mob in Melbourne at the weekend. Victoria Police dispute the numbers and say around 15 people were seen outside the Epping pub where the bashing occurred. The attack comes as Victoria's Premier, John Brumby, prepares to go on a mission to India to help repair Australia's reputation.

SIMON LAUDER: The attack barely rated a mention in Australia, but it's headline news for some Indian media outlets.

[Indian TV Clips:]

* INDIAN FEMALE NEWSREADER: In a shocking incident three Indians were beaten by a group of no less than 70 Australians on Saturday.

* MALE NEWSREADER: Good afternoon, our top story, there's been another attack on Indians in Melbourne's eastern suburb of Epping.

* FEMALE NEWSREADER 2: In this shocking incident, three Indians were beaten up by a group of no less than 70 Australians on Saturday.

[Indian TV Clips End]

SIMON LAUDER: Onkar Singh is the brother in law of two of the victims. He says the men were playing pool at a bar in Epping in Melbourne's east on Saturday night when a member of a large party started abusing them.

ONKAR SINGH: Our guys just ignore it and Gurdeep told him just to mind his own business. And as soon as the security guards see this happening they came to them and they took the other guy out of the joint and while taking all this, he was just saying to them come out I want to see you.

And the security guard says you can keep on playing, don't worry about it. And they thought after an hour, they thought we'll leave, it's all safe now we can go, and while they were going towards car park they saw like 70 to 75 people in car park waiting for them.

The [___] were shouting at them "you Indians go back to your country", as soon as they like, even they didn't even they didn't want, went to the car they attacked them.

SIMON LAUDER: Police have confirmed the men were attacked outside an Epping bar on Saturday night. Four men were arrested for assault questioned and then released. A Victoria Police spokesman says officers at the scene saw only 15 people gathering, not 70. Onkar Singh says his brothers in law have serious injuries and the police have been slow to act.

ONKAR SINGH: Sukhdip got very badly injured in that, and Gurdeep has, his jaw broken, and Mukhtair the uncle, his shoulder is broken. And Royshe (phonetic) his son was in the pub, his teeths are broken.

SIMON LAUDER: Are they sure that there were about 70 people there, because the police are saying when they turned up there were only about 15?

ONKAR SINGH: No they were saying when the attack happened there was a lot of people, about 70 and all, they might have run away or something because they can all see the whole car park was full with them.

SIMON LAUDER: And were they all taking part in the attack? Or were many of them just onlookers?

ONKAR SINGH: Yes, no, no, even the womans, they have scratched their faces and everyone was beating.



Moronic Sikh: "I must be a good Muslim".





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